Bradley G Holubar

Learn More
Unlike individuals with mild stroke, individuals with severe stroke are constrained to stereotypical movement patterns attributed to abnormal coupling of shoulder abductors with elbow flexors, and shoulder adductors with elbow extensors. Whether abnormal muscle coactivation and associated joint torque patterns can be changed in this population is important(More)
The ability to extend the elbow following stroke depends on the magnitude and direction of torques acting at the shoulder. The mechanisms underlying this link remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the effects of shoulder loading on elbow function were related to weakness or its distribution in the paretic limb. Ten subjects with(More)
  • 1