Bradley D. Preston

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The diploid nature of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) indicates that recombination serves a central function in virus replication and evolution. Previously, while examining the nature of obligatory primer strand transfers during reverse transcription, a high rate of recombination was observed at the ends of the viral genome within the viral long(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) shows extensive genetic variation and undergoes rapid evolution. The fidelity of purified HIV-1 reverse transcriptase was measured during DNA polymerization in vitro by means of three different assays. Reverse transcriptase from HIV-1 introduced base-substitution errors in DNA from the bacteriophage phi X174(More)
Previously, we reported that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) recombines approximately two to three times per genome per replication cycle, an extremely high rate of recombination given the relatively small genome size of HIV-1. However, a recombination hot spot involving sequence of nonretroviral origin was identified in the vector system(More)
We determined the fidelity of avian myeloblastosis virus and Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptases (RTs) during DNA synthesis in vitro using the M13mp2 lacZ alpha gene as a mutational target. Both RTs commit an error approximately once for every 30,000 nucleotides polymerized. DNA sequence analysis of mutants generated in a forward mutation(More)
HIV-1 evolves rapidly, which is thought to result from one or more error-prone steps in the virus life cycle. Because HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) does not possess 3'- to 5'-exonucleolytic proofreading activity and because RT has been shown to be error-prone in cell free systems, it should be an important contributor to the high rate of HIV-1 mutation.(More)
Many retroviruses either encode dUTP pyrophosphatase (dUTPase) or package host-derived uracil DNA glycosylase as a means to limit the accumulation of uracil in DNA strands, suggesting that uracil is detrimental to one or more steps in the viral life cycle. In the present study, the effects of DNA uracilation on (-) strand DNA synthesis, RNase H activity,(More)
Genotypic surveys suggest that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 evolve different sets of mutations in response to nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). We used site-directed mutagenesis, culture-based phenotyping, and cell-free assays to determine the resistance profiles conferred by specific amino acid replacements in(More)
Mutations are a hallmark of cancer. Normal cells minimize spontaneous mutations through the combined actions of polymerase base selectivity, 3' --> 5' exonucleolytic proofreading, mismatch correction, and DNA damage repair. To determine the consequences of defective proofreading in mammals, we created mice with a point mutation (D400A) in the proofreading(More)