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The role of the multidrug resistance protein MRP4/ABCC4 in vivo remains undefined. To explore this role, we generated Mrp4-deficient mice. Unexpectedly, these mice showed enhanced accumulation of the anticancer agent topotecan in brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Further studies demonstrated that topotecan was an Mrp4 substrate and that cells(More)
The 4-anilinoquinazoline (4-AQ) derivative gefitinib (Iressa) is an oral epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Oral administration of 4-AQ molecules, such as gefitinib, inhibits ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter-mediated drug efflux and strongly increases the apparent bioavailability of coadministered drug molecules that are(More)
BACKGROUND Clinicians find standardized mean differences (SMDs) calculated from continuous outcomes difficult to interpret. Our objective was to determine the performance of methods in converting SMDs or means to odds ratios of treatment response and numbers needed to treat (NNTs) as more intuitive measures of treatment effect. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Antibiotic treatment may disturb the resistance of gastrointestinal flora to colonization. This may result in complications, the most serious of which is Clostridium difficile–associated diarrhea (CDAD). PURPOSE To assess the efficacy and safety of probiotics for the prevention of CDAD in adults and children receiving antibiotics. DATA(More)
Presenting continuous outcomes in Summary of Findings tables presents particular challenges to interpretation. When each study uses the same outcome measure, and the units of that measure are intuitively interpretable (e.g., duration of hospitalization, duration of symptoms), presenting differences in means is usually desirable. When the natural units of(More)
BACKGROUND Antibiotics are widely prescribed; however they can cause disturbances in gastrointestinal flora which may lead to reduced resistance to pathogens such as Clostridium difficile (C. difficile). Probiotics are live organisms thought to balance the gastrointestinal flora. OBJECTIVES The primary objectives were to assess the efficacy and safety of(More)
IMPORTANCE Many claims have been made regarding the superiority of one diet or another for inducing weight loss. Which diet is best remains unclear. OBJECTIVE To determine weight loss outcomes for popular diets based on diet class (macronutrient composition) and named diet. DATA SOURCES Search of 6 electronic databases: AMED, CDSR, CENTRAL, CINAHL,(More)
BACKGROUND No methods directly address the impact of missing participant data for continuous outcomes in systematic reviews on risk of bias. METHODS We conducted a consultative, iterative process to develop a framework for handling missing participant data for continuous outcomes. We considered sources reflecting real observed outcomes in participants(More)
BACKGROUND Postoperative infections, particularly surgical site infections (SSIs), cause significant morbidity and mortality. Probiotics or synbiotics are a potential prevention strategy. AIM To evaluate the efficacy of probiotics/synbiotics for reducing postoperative infection risk following abdominal surgery. METHODS We searched AMED, Central, CINAHL,(More)
BACKGROUND Upper respiratory tract infections are the most common childhood illness. Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng root extract) standardized to contain 80% poly-furanosyl-pyranosyl-saccharides is purported to be effective in adult upper respiratory tract infection but has not been evaluated yet in a pediatric population. OBJECTIVES Our primary(More)