Learn More
Three first-generation fluorescent protein voltage sensitive probes (FP-voltage sensors) were characterized in mammalian cells. Flare, a Kv1.4 variant of FlaSh [Siegel MS, Isacoff EY. Neuron 1997;19(October (4)):735-41], SPARC [Ataka K, Pieribone VA. Biophys J 2002;82(January (1 Pt 1)):509-16], and VSFP-1 [Sakai R, Repunte-Canonigo V, Raj CD, Knopfel T. Eur(More)
This paper presents three examples of imaging brain activity with voltage- or calcium-sensitive dyes and then discusses the methodological aspects of the measurements that are needed to achieve an optimal signal-to-noise ratio. Internally injected voltage-sensitive dye can be used to monitor membrane potential in the dendrites of invertebrate and vertebrate(More)
BACKGROUND Fluorescent proteins have been used to generate a variety of biosensors to optically monitor biological phenomena in living cells. Among this class of genetically encoded biosensors, reporters for membrane potential have been a particular challenge. The use of presently known voltage sensor proteins is limited by incorrect subcellular(More)
Imaging activity of neurons in intact brain tissue was conceived several decades ago and, after many years of development, voltage-sensitive dyes now offer the highest spatial and temporal resolution for imaging neuronal functions in the living brain. Further progress in this field is expected from the emergent development of genetically encoded fluorescent(More)
This review presents three examples of using voltage- or calcium-sensitive dyes to image the activity of the brain. Our aim is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each method with particular reference to its application to the study of the brainstem. Two of the examples use wide-field (one-photon) imaging; the third uses two-photon scanning(More)
We previously reported the discovery of a fluorescent protein voltage probe, ArcLight, and its derivatives that exhibit large changes in fluorescence intensity in response to changes of plasma membrane voltage. ArcLight allows the reliable detection of single action potentials and sub-threshold activities in individual neurons and dendrites. The response(More)
FlaSh-YFP, a fluorescent protein (FP) voltage sensor that is a fusion of the Shaker potassium channel with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP), is primarily expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of mammalian cells, possibly due to misfolded monomers. In an effort to improve plasma membrane expression, the FP was split into two non-fluorescent halves.(More)
Several genetically encoded fluorescent sensors of voltage were created by systematically truncating the length of the linker sequence between the voltage-sensing domain and the position of the fluorescent protein, Super Ecliptic A227D. In addition to varying the length, the amino acid composition at the fusion site for the fluorescent protein was modified.(More)
ArcLight is a genetically encoded fluorescent voltage sensor using the voltage-sensing domain of the voltage-sensing phosphatase from Ciona intestinalis that gives a large but slow-responding optical signal in response to changes in membrane potential (Jin et al., 2012). Fluorescent voltage sensors using the voltage-sensing domain from other species give(More)
A substantial increase in the speed of the optical response of genetically encoded fluorescent protein voltage sensors (FP voltage sensors) was achieved by using the voltage-sensing phosphatase genes of Nematostella vectensis and Danio rerio. A potential N. vectensis voltage-sensing phosphatase was identified in silico. The voltage-sensing domain (S1-S4) of(More)