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USPIO-enhanced MRI allows non-invasive visualization of mononuclear cell infiltration into CNS lesions in MS and EAE. Herein, we show a distinct spatiotemporal pattern of CNS lesions that reveals the involvement of spino-olivocerebellar pathways in MOG-induced EAE rats using USPIO-enhanced MRI. Specifically, lesions of the inferior olives were observed(More)
The role of epitope spreading in the pathology of relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (R-EAE) was examined. Using peripherally induced immunologic tolerance as a probe to analyze the neuropathologic T cell repertoire, we show that the majority of the immunopathologic reactivity during the acute phase of R-EAE in SJL/J mice induced(More)
Proteolipid protein (PLP) is a major component of the central nervous system (CNS) myelin membrane and has been shown to induce acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in genetically susceptible animals. Here we describe conditions by which a relapsing-remitting form of EAE can be reliably induced in SJL/J mice either actively immunized with(More)
The Bcl-2 family of proteins plays a critical role in controlling immune responses by regulating the expansion and contraction of activated lymphocyte clones by apoptosis. ABT-737, which was originally developed for oncology, is a potent inhibitor of Bcl-2, Bcl-x(L), and Bcl-w protein function. There is evidence that Bcl-2-associated dysregulation of(More)
In multiple sclerosis, long-term disability is caused by axonal and neuronal damage. Established therapies target primarily the inflammatory component of the disease, but fail to prevent neurodegeneration. Fingolimod (codenamed FTY720) is an oral sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator with promising results in phase II trials in multiple sclerosis(More)
PLP 139-151(S) is the major encephalitogenic epitope of PLP in the SJL/J mouse. CD4+ T cells specific for PLP 139-151(S) induce a relapsing-remitting form of EAE which is similar to the human demyelinating disease MS in both clinical course and histopathology. We are interested in events involved in activation of autoreactive T cells and how to specifically(More)
CD4+ T cells specific for PLP 139-151 induce a relapsing-remitting form of EAE which is similar to the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS) in both clinical course and histopathology. Conservative and nonconservative amino acid substitutions were introduced at three TcR or MHC contact residues within PLP 139-151 to identify fine specificity(More)
Peptide-specific tolerance with PLP139-151 peptide analogs was used to compare the fine antigen-specificity requirements at both the inductive and effector phases of relapsing EAE (R-EAE). A PLP139-151 analog peptide containing a single substitution at the primary T cell receptor (TcR) contact residue (A144) did not induce proliferation in PLP139-151-primed(More)
Natural killer cell activity was compared in the Long-Sleep and Short-Sleep mouse lines. These mice, initially selected for their sensitivities to a hypnotic dose of ethanol, are also differentially sensitive to other agents which act through the benzodiazepine/GABA receptor chloride ionophore complex. Natural killer cell activity was 40-59% lower in(More)
The role of epitope spreading in the pathology of relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (R-EAE) was examined. Using peripherally induced immunologic tolerance as a probe to analyze the neuropathologic T cell repertoire, we show that the majority of the immunopathologic reactivity during the acute phase of R-EAE in SJL/J mice induced(More)