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Interactions of polycationic polymers with supported 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) lipid bilayers and live cell membranes (KB and Rat2) have been investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM), cytosolic enzyme assays, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). Polycationic polymers(More)
Functional nanoparticles often contain ligands including targeting molecules, fluorophores, and/or active moieties such as drugs. Characterizing the number of these ligands bound to each particle and the distribution of nanoparticle-ligand species is important for understanding the nanomaterial's function. In this study, the amide coupling methods commonly(More)
Dendrimer-based anticancer nanotherapeutics containing approximately 5 folate molecules have shown in vitro and in vivo efficacy in cancer cell targeting. Multivalent interactions have been inferred from observed targeting efficacy, but have not been experimentally proven. This study provides quantitative and systematic evidence for multivalent interactions(More)
We have investigated poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer interactions with supported 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) lipid bilayers and KB and Rat2 cell membranes using atomic force microscopy (AFM), enzyme assays, flow cell cytometry, and fluorescence microscopy. Amine-terminated generation 7 (G7) PAMAM dendrimers (10-100 nM) were(More)
Polycationic organic nanoparticles are shown to disrupt model biological membranes and living cell membranes at nanomolar concentrations. The degree of disruption is shown to be related to nanoparticle size and charge, as well as to the phase-fluid, liquid crystalline, or gel-of the biological membrane. Disruption events on model membranes have been(More)
Nanoparticles with widely varying physical properties and origins (spherical versus irregular, synthetic versus biological, organic versus inorganic, flexible versus rigid, small versus large) have been previously noted to translocate across the cell plasma membrane. We have employed atomic force microscopy to determine if the physical disruption of lipid(More)
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is employed to observe the effect of poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers on 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) lipid bilayers. Aqueous solutions of generation 7 PAMAM dendrimers cause the formation of holes 15-40 nm in diameter in previously intact bilayers. This effect is observed for two different branch(More)
Bone is an amazing material evolved by nature to elegantly balance structural and metabolic needs in the body. Bone health is an integral part of overall health, but our lack of understanding of the ultrastructure of healthy bone precludes us from knowing how disease may impact nanoscale properties in this biological material. Here, we show that(More)
The interaction of an antimicrobial peptide, MSI-78, with phospholipid bilayers has been investigated using atomic force microscopy, circular dichroism, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Binding of amphipathic peptide helices with their helical axis parallel to the membrane surface leads to membrane thinning. Atomic force microscopy of supported(More)
Stochastic synthesis of a ligand coupled to a nanoparticle results in a distribution of populations with different numbers of ligands per nanoparticle. This distribution was resolved and quantified using HPLC and is in excellent agreement with the ligand/nanoparticle average measured by 1H NMR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and potentiometric(More)