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Individual mouse pancreatic islets exhibit oscillations in [Ca(2+)](i) and insulin secretion in response to glucose in vitro, but how the oscillations of a million islets are coordinated within the human pancreas in vivo is unclear. Islet to islet synchronization is necessary, however, for the pancreas to produce regular pulses of insulin. To determine(More)
The intrinsic mobility of intracellular H(+) ions was investigated by confocally imaging the longitudinal movement of acid inside rabbit ventricular myocytes loaded with the acetoxymethyl ester (AM) form of carboxy-seminaphthorhodafluor-1 (carboxy-SNARF-1). Acid was diffused into one end of the cell through a patch pipette filled with an isotonic KCl(More)
Spontaneous calcium sparks can lead to propagation of a self-initiated calcium wave under certain conditions in a heart cell. A model for diffusion waves of calcium ions in a heart cell is given by a system of coupled, time-dependent reaction-diffusion equations. The key term of the model quantifies the release of calcium at the calcium release units by a(More)
The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) receptor is a Ca(2+) channel located in the endoplasmic reticulum and is regulated by IP(3) and Ca(2+). This channel is critical to calcium signaling in cell types as varied as neurons and pancreatic beta cells to mast cells. De Young and Keizer (1992) created an eight-state, nine-variable model of the IP(3)(More)
Vitamin D binding protein (DBP) plays a key role in the bioavailability of active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D) and its precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), but accurate analysis of DBP-bound and free 25OHD and 1,25(OH)(2)D is difficult. To address this, two new mathematical models were developed to estimate: 1) serum levels of free(More)
The last five years have witnessed a remarkable renaissance in vitamin D research and a complete re-evaluation of its benefits to human health. Two key factors have catalyzed these changes. First, it now seems likely that localized, tissue-specific, conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) drives many of the newly(More)
Intracellular H(+) mobility was estimated in the rabbit isolated ventricular myocyte by diffusing HCl into the cell from a patch pipette, while imaging pH(i) confocally using intracellular ratiometric SNARF fluorescence. The delay for acid diffusion between two downstream regions approximately 40 microm apart was reduced from approximately 25 s to(More)
Recent experimental work has identified the principal components arrayed by Escherichia coli in its sensing of, and response to, varying levels of oxygen. This apparatus may be leveraged/modified by the metabolic engineer to identify nonuniform oxygen and glucose regimens that deliver better yields than their uniform counterparts. Toward this end we build(More)
Extracellular signalling molecules control many biological processes, but the influence of tissue architecture on the local concentrations of these factors is unclear. Here we examine this issue in the Drosophila egg chamber, where two anterior cells secrete Unpaired (Upd) to activate Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signalling in the(More)
The ability to image calcium movement within individual neurons inspires questions of functionality including whether calcium entry into the nucleus is related to genetic regulation for phenomena such as long term potentiation. Calcium waves have been initiated in hippocampal pyramidal cells with glutmatergic signals both in the presence and absence of back(More)