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Conflict procedures can be used to study the receptor mechanisms underlying the anxiolytic effects of benzodiazepines and other GABA(A) receptor modulators. In the present study, we first determined the efficacy and binding affinity of the benzodiazepine diazepam and recently synthesized GABA(A) receptor modulators JY-XHe-053, XHe-II-053, HZ-166,(More)
Combinations of positive modulators of benzodiazepine and neuroactive steroid sites on GABA(A) receptors have been shown to act in an additive or supra-additive manner depending on the endpoint under study, but they have not been assessed on experimentally induced conflict or drug self-administration. The present study examined the interactive effects of(More)
Benzodiazepines are prescribed widely but their utility is limited by unwanted side effects, including abuse potential. The mechanisms underlying the abuse-related effects of benzodiazepines are not well understood, although α1 subunit-containing GABAA receptors have been proposed to have a critical role. Here, we examine the reinforcing effects of several(More)
Assays of schedule-controlled responding can be used to characterize the pharmacology of benzodiazepines and other GABAA receptor modulators, and are sensitive to changes in drug effects that are related to physical dependence. The present study used this approach to investigate the role of GABAA receptor subtypes in mediating dependence-like effects(More)
It has been suggested that heroin and morphine may act on different opioid receptor populations in rodents. In support of this hypothesis, the opioid antagonist 3-methoxynaltrexone was reported to be more potent as an antagonist of the antinociceptive effects of heroin than of morphine in mice and rats. To assess the generality of this finding across(More)
Prolonged use of high-dose anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) may induce a dependence syndrome, and emerging evidence suggests that AAS effects on endogenous opioid systems may contribute to AAS abuse. The present study tested the hypothesis that high dose AAS treatment enhances endogenous opioid activity in rhesus monkeys as revealed by 1) tolerance to the(More)
Tolerance and dependence after acute or chronic administration of the selective delta-opioid agonist SNC80 were assessed in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) responding under a schedule of food presentation. SNC80 dose dependently decreased response rates. These effects waned after 5 h. When administered as an acute 24-h pretreatment, SNC80 (1.0-10.0 mg/kg)(More)
RATIONALE Recent experimental data suggest that metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonists with selectivity for mGluR1 and mGluR2/3 enhance morphine-induced antinociception. OBJECTIVES The present study addressed the hypothesis that mGluR antagonists enhance opioid antinociception by increasing opioid efficacy. MATERIALS AND METHODS The(More)
RATIONALE Experimental evidence suggests that the differential behavioral effects of benzodiazepines depend on their relative actions at γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors that contain either an α1, α2, α3, or α5 subunit. OBJECTIVES The present study was aimed at understanding the role of α3 subunit-containing GABA(A) (α3GABA(A)) receptors by(More)
A growing body of literature has implicated N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor mechanisms in the acute antinociceptive effects of morphine; however, the nature of this interaction has not been thoroughly quantified. Moreover, it is not clear whether NMDA/morphine interactions extend to less efficacious opioids. Therefore, the present study examined the(More)