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BACKGROUND Colorectal cancer (CRC) fulfills the World Health Organization criteria for mass screening, but screening uptake is low in most countries. CRC screening is resource intensive, and it is unclear if an optimal strategy exists. The objective of this study was to perform an economic evaluation of CRC screening in average risk North American(More)
BACKGROUND The effectiveness of quality improvement (QI) strategies on diabetes care remains unclear. We aimed to assess the effects of QI strategies on glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)), vascular risk management, microvascular complication monitoring, and smoking cessation in patients with diabetes. METHODS We identified studies through Medline, the(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health problem. In the UK, guidelines have been developed to facilitate case identification and management. Our aim was to estimate the annualized cost of implementation of the guidelines on newly identified CKD cases. METHODS We interrogated the New Opportunities for Early Renal Intervention by(More)
BACKGROUND Diabetes is regarded as a coronary heart disease risk equivalent-ie, people with the disorder have a risk of coronary events similar to those with previous myocardial infarction. We assessed whether chronic kidney disease should be regarded as a coronary heart disease risk equivalent. METHODS We studied a population-based cohort with measures(More)
BACKGROUND Hemodialysis patients are at risk for deficiency of essential trace elements and excess of toxic trace elements, both of which can affect health. We conducted a systematic review to summarize existing literature on trace element status in hemodialysis patients. METHODS All studies which reported relevant data for chronic hemodialysis patients(More)
INTRODUCTION Meta-analyses have been suggested to be the highest form of evidence available to clinicians to guide clinical practice in critical care. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the quality of meta-analyses that address topics pertinent to critical care. METHODS To identify potentially eligible meta-analyses for inclusion, a(More)
BACKGROUND Low values of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) predispose to acute kidney injury, and proteinuria is a marker of kidney disease. We aimed to investigate how eGFR and proteinuria jointly modified the risks of acute kidney injury and subsequent adverse clinical outcomes. METHODS We did a cohort study of 920,985 adults residing in(More)
BACKGROUND The Alberta Kidney Disease Network is a collaborative nephrology research organization based on a central repository of laboratory and administrative data from the Canadian province of Alberta. DESCRIPTION The laboratory data within the Alberta Kidney Disease Network can be used to define patient populations, such as individuals with chronic(More)
BACKGROUND Treatment of hypertension in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) has been shown to improve cardiovascular outcomes; however, the value of intensive blood pressure (BP) targets remains uncertain. We sought to determine the effectiveness and safety of treating BP to intensive targets (upper limit of 130 mm Hg systolic and 80 mm Hg diastolic)(More)
BACKGROUND Although obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is more common in patients with kidney disease, whether nocturnal hypoxia affects kidney function is unknown. METHODS We studied all adult subjects referred for diagnostic testing of sleep apnea between July 2005 and December 31 2007 who had serial measurement of their kidney function. Nocturnal hypoxia(More)