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Prevailing views suggest the Industrial Revolution began in Europe because markets had gradually become more efficient and by the 18 th century the scope of economic activity was far larger than in other parts of the world. This paper compares the actual performance of markets in Europe and China, two regions of the world that were relatively advanced in(More)
The peritoneal cavity (PNC) and intestine of northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) pups and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups that died in late July and early August, 2003, on San Miguel Island, California, were examined for hookworms. Prevalence and morphometric studies were done with the hookworms in addition to molecular(More)
This paper contributes an estimation framework to measure both technological and linkage externalities from foreign direct investment (FDI). Empirical research dealt mainly with intra-industry spillovers from FDI with restrictive treatment of inter-industry effects until recently. However, as optimal organization of the multinational corporation (MNC)(More)
We study the importance of technology and institutions in determining the size of markets in …ve di¤erent countries and …fteen di¤erent German states. The setting of 19th century Europe presents a unique opportunity to address this issue, since it witnessed fundamental change in both dimensions. At the beginning of the century, numerous customs borders,(More)
Technology standards are pervasive in the modern economy, and a target for public and private investments, yet evidence on their economic importance is scarce. I study the conversion of 13,000 miles of railroad track in the U.S. South to standard gauge between May 31 and June 1, 1886 as a large-scale natural experiment in technology standards adoption that(More)
This paper contributes an estimation framework to measure both technological and linkage externalities from foreign direct investment (FDI). Empirical research to date has dealt only with intra-industry spillovers from FDI without allowance for inter-industry effects. However, as optimal organization of the multinational corporation (MNC) involves(More)
In this paper we model the pattern of international trade, and technological innovation and imitation between industrialized and developing regions, when preferences are nonhomothetic. By and large, models of the dynamics of North-South trade impose the assumption of unit income elasticity for all consumption goods. We relax this assumption and incorporate(More)
Although the core model of the Dutch Disease makes unambiguous predictions regarding the negative effect of a resource boom on a country's manufacturing exports, the empirical literature that has followed has not clearly identified this effect. I attribute this to the failure of the existing literature to combine enough data to produce a sufficiently(More)