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Families of peptide neuromodulators are believed to play important roles in neural networks that control behaviors. Here, we investigate the expression and role of one such group of modulators, the myomodulins, in the feeding system of Lymnaea stagnalis. Using a combination of in situ hybridization and antibody staining, expression of the myomodulin gene(More)
The myomodulin family of neuropeptides is an important group of neural cotransmitters in molluscs and is known to be present in the neural network that controls feeding behavior in the snail Lymnaea. Here we show that a single gene encodes five structurally similar forms of myomodulin: GLQMLRLamide, QIPMLRLamide, SMSMLRLamide, SLSMLRLamide, and(More)
MALDI-ToF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry) has become a fast, reliable and sensitive technique for the identification of neuropeptides in biological tissues. Here, we applied this technique to identified neurons of the cardioregulatory network in the snail Lymnaea that express the FMRFamide gene. This enabled(More)
The California Energy Commission manages public interest energy research for electric and natural gas research programs through its Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program. PIER supports energy‐related research, development, and demonstration for research not adequately provided by competitive and regulated markets. Legislature declared that it is in(More)
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