Brad Rowland

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To help explain a role of the Shiga toxin family in hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome in humans, it has been hypothesized that these toxins cause direct damage to the vascular endothelium. We now report that Shiga toxin purified from Shigella dysenteriae 1 does indeed have a direct cytotoxic effect on vascular endothelial cells in cultures.(More)
A variety of fluorescein di-beta-D-galactopyranoside (FDG)-based substrates were evaluated for measuring beta-galactosidase expression in bacteria. One substrate, 5-acetylamino-FDG (C2FDG), performed well in all bacteria tested, including the slow growing mycobacterium, Mycobacterium bovis BCG. The sensitivity of C2FDG in intact, viable BCG was similar to(More)
Under iron-limiting conditions, Bacillus subtilis (Bs) produces the siderophore 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate (DHB) to acquire extracellular iron. In Escherichia coli (Ec), DHB is a precursor of the siderophore enterobactin, which suggested that Bs may possess similar biosynthetic enzymes. The sequences of two overlapping Bs clones capable of complementing Ec(More)
Bacillus subtilis has duplicate isochorismate synthase genes, menF and dhbC. Isochorismate synthase is involved in the biosynthesis of both the respiratory chain component menaquinone (MK) and the siderophore 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate (DHB). Several menF and dhbC deletion mutants were constructed to identify the contribution made by each gene product to MK and(More)
The nerve agent VX (O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphonothiolate) is lethal at very low levels of exposure, which can occur by dermal contact with contaminated surfaces. Hence, behavior of VX in contact with common urban or industrial surfaces is a subject of acute interest. In the present study, VX was found to undergo complete degradation(More)
Menaquinone (MK) is a non-protein component of the Bacillus subtilis (Bs) electron transport chain synthesized from chorismate through a series of MK-specific reactions. The genes encoding biosynthesis of the naphthoquinone ring of MK are clustered at 273 degrees on the Bs chromosome. A 3.9-kb region capable of rescuing men mutants blocked in the early(More)
At trace coverages on concrete surfaces, the nerve agent VX (O-ethyl S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methyl phosphonothiolate) degrades by cleavage of the P-S and S-C bonds, as revealed by periodic secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The observed kinetics were (pseudo-) first-order, with a half-life of 2-3 h at room temperature. The rate increased with(More)
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