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BACKGROUND One problem of interpreting population-based biomonitoring data is the reconstruction of corresponding external exposure in cases where no such data are available. OBJECTIVES We demonstrate the use of a computational framework that integrates physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling, Bayesian inference, and Markov chain Monte Carlo(More)
One problem associated with regimen-based development of antituberculosis (anti-TB) drugs is the difficulty of a systematic and thorough in vivo evaluation of the large number of possible regimens that arise from consideration of multiple drugs tested together. A mathematical model capable of simulating the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of(More)
A method has been developed to track controlled drug release and transport in the brain. This method entails the use of a polymeric implant to release, over time, a paramagnetically labelled compound into the brain. Magnetic resonance imaging is used to determine the evolving concentration distribution. This method is well suited to other types of(More)
The principal aim of this study was to develop, validate, and demonstrate a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict and characterize the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of acetaminophen (APAP) in humans. A PBPK model was created that included pharmacologically and toxicologically relevant tissue compartments and(More)
AIM In cases of paracetamol (acetaminophen, APAP) overdose, an accurate estimate of tissue-specific paracetamol pharmacokinetics (PK) and ingested dose can offer health care providers important information for the individualized treatment and follow-up of affected patients. Here a novel methodology is presented to make such estimates using a standard serum(More)
Because of the pioneering vision of certain leaders in the biomedical field, the last two decades witnessed rapid advances in the area of chemical mixture toxicology. Earlier studies utilized conventional toxicology protocol and methods, and they were mainly descriptive in nature. Two good examples might be the parallel series of studies conducted by the(More)
OBJECTIVES This study aimed to systematically review and quantitatively synthesize the association between HLA-B*5701 and abacavir-induced hypersensitivity reaction (ABC-HSR). METHODS We searched for studies that investigated the association between HLA-B genotype and ABC-HSR and provided information about the frequency of carriers of HLA-B genotypes(More)
Computational toxicology is a vibrant and rapidly developing discipline that integrates information and data from a variety of sources to develop mathematical and computer-based models to better understand and predict adverse health effects caused by chemicals, such as environmental pollutants and pharmaceuticals. Encompassing medicine, biology,(More)
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are a superfamily of enzymes that metabolize the majority of xenobiotics in humans. This review presents a structure-based outline of CYP-catalyzed biotransformations of selected substrates, representing diverse structural classes of chemicals, ranging from drugs to toxicants. Data are presented in a tabular format for easy(More)
Ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) has been recommended as an alternative regimen for HIV-naive patients who cannot tolerate nevirapine (NVP) and/or efavirenz (EFV). Although combinations of ritonavir and lopinavir have shown higher plasma concentration level of LPV in clinical settings, dosage adjustment is still required to maintain an adequate(More)