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Through the reduction of live animal use in teaching surgical technique, the opportunities to deliberately study complex regional anatomy and practice surgical technique have decreased. With reduced exposure, there is concern some individuals are graduating without the requisite knowledge and proficiency to perform adequate surgical techniques. Ultimately,(More)
Simulated environments are increasingly being used to evaluate human behavior in a wide variety of situations. These virtual environments are particularly useful in the study of behavior involving dangerous conditions. Quantifying the impact of these environments on the subject is essential to validate the efficacy of the simulation as a virtualization of(More)
As the incidence of skin cancer continues to rise, there is an increasing need for skilled practitioners that are proficient in identifying suspicious lesions and competent in acquiring biopsies that provide for optimal determination of malignancy and staging. We report on the development of a prototype simulation that emulates the basic procedures(More)
OBJECTIVE A method for rating surgical performance of a mastoidectomy procedure that is shown to apply universally across teaching institutions has not yet been devised. This work describes the development of a rating instrument created from a multi-institutional consortium. DESIGN Using a participatory design and a modified Delphi approach, a(More)
A haptic algorithm to simulate the interaction between a surgical drill and bone using a constraint-based algorithm has been previously demonstrated. However, there has been no blinded study to determine whether this algorithm is preferred by professionals who commonly use this type of system Fourteen otologic surgeons were presented with a spring–damper(More)
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