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The rapid antidepressant response after ketamine administration in treatment-resistant depressed patients suggests a possible new approach for treating mood disorders compared to the weeks or months required for standard medications. However, the mechanisms underlying this action of ketamine [a glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist](More)
BACKGROUND Despite widely reported clinical and preclinical studies of rapid antidepressant actions of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists, there has been very little work examining the effects of these drugs in stress models of depression that require chronic administration of antidepressants or the molecular mechanisms that could(More)
NDP kinases (NDPKs) are multifunctional proteins that regulate a variety of eukaryotic cellular activities, including cell proliferation, development, and differentiation. However, much less is known about the functional significance of NDPKs in plants. We show here that NDPK is associated with H(2)O(2)-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in(More)
The dual nature of the NMDA receptor as a mediator of excitotoxic cell death and activity-dependent cell survival likely results from divergent patterns of kinase activation, transcription factor activation, and gene expression. To begin to address this divergence, we examined cellular and molecular signaling events that couple excitotoxic and nontoxic(More)
Formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species is a precipitating event in an array of neuropathological conditions. In response to excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, transcriptionally dependent mechanisms drive the up-regulation of ROS scavenging proteins which, in turn, limit the extent of brain damage. Here, we employed a transgenic(More)
Intrinsic burst and rhythmic burst discharges (RBDs) are elicited by activation of T-type Ca(2+) channels in the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN). TRN bursts are believed to be critical for generation and maintenance of thalamocortical oscillations, leading to the spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs), which are the hallmarks of absence seizures. We observed(More)
This study extends earlier work on the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the actions of antidepressant treatment in two key areas. First, by determining the requirement for VEGF in the actions of a 5-HT selective reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), fluoxetine in behavioral models of depression/antidepressant response; and second, by examining the(More)
Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), which consist of highly phosphorylated tau, are hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer disease (AD). In neurodegenerative diseases, neuronal dysfunction due to neuronal loss and synaptic loss accompanies NFT formation, suggesting that a process associated with NFT formation may be involved in neuronal(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Plants modulate defence signalling networks in response to different biotic stresses. The present study evaluated the effect of a phloem-sucking aphid on plant defence mechanisms in pepper (Capsicum annuum) during subsequent pathogen attacks on leaves and rhizosphere bacteria on roots. METHODS Plants were pretreated with aphids and/or(More)
Signaling via the p42/p44 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway has been implicated as an intermediate event coupling light to entrainment of the mammalian circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). To examine how photic input dynamically regulates the activation state of the MAPK pathway, we monitored extracellular(More)