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The dual nature of the NMDA receptor as a mediator of excitotoxic cell death and activity-dependent cell survival likely results from divergent patterns of kinase activation, transcription factor activation, and gene expression. To begin to address this divergence, we examined cellular and molecular signaling events that couple excitotoxic and nontoxic(More)
Formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species is a precipitating event in an array of neuropathological conditions. In response to excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, transcriptionally dependent mechanisms drive the up-regulation of ROS scavenging proteins which, in turn, limit the extent of brain damage. Here, we employed a transgenic(More)
Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), which consist of highly phosphorylated tau, are hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer disease (AD). In neurodegenerative diseases, neuronal dysfunction due to neuronal loss and synaptic loss accompanies NFT formation, suggesting that a process associated with NFT formation may be involved in neuronal(More)
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) mediates the stimulatory effect of norepinephrine (NE) on the secretion of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), the neuropeptide controlling reproductive function. In rodents, this facilitatory effect requires previous exposure to estradiol, suggesting that the steroid affects downstream components in the cascade that leads(More)
Signaling via the p42/44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway has been shown to be a key intracellular signaling event that couples light to entrainment of the mammalian circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Because many of the physiological effects of the MAPK pathway are mediated by extracellular signal-regulated kinase(More)
TTF-1 is a member of the Nkx family of homeodomain genes required for morphogenesis of the hypothalamus. Whether TTF-1, or other Nkx genes, contributes to regulating differentiated hypothalamic functions is not known. We now report that postnatal hypothalamic TTF-1 expression is developmentally regulated and associated with the neuroendocrine process of(More)
Excitotoxic cell death is one of the precipitating events in the development of temporal lobe epilepsy. Of particular prominence is the loss of GABAergic hilar neurons. Although the molecular mechanisms responsible for the selective vulnerability of these cells are not well understood, activation of the extracellular signal-regulated(More)
Signaling via the p42/p44 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway has been implicated as an intermediate event coupling light to entrainment of the mammalian circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). To examine how photic input dynamically regulates the activation state of the MAPK pathway, we monitored extracellular(More)
Intrinsic burst and rhythmic burst discharges (RBDs) are elicited by activation of T-type Ca(2+) channels in the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN). TRN bursts are believed to be critical for generation and maintenance of thalamocortical oscillations, leading to the spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs), which are the hallmarks of absence seizures. We observed(More)