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Understanding the heterogeneity of biological structures, particularly at the micro/nano scale can offer insights valuable for multidisciplinary research in tissue engineering and biomimicry designs. Here we propose to combine nanocharacterisation tools, particularly Focused Ion Beam (FIB) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) for three dimensional mapping of(More)
Antibiotic resistance is a major risk to human health, and to provide valuable insights into mechanisms of resistance, innovative methods are needed to examine the cellular responses to antibiotic treatment. Focused ion beam tomography is proposed to image and assess the detailed three-dimensional (3D) ultrastructure of single bacterial cells. By(More)
Due to their size and optical clarity, zebrafish embryos have long been appreciated for their usefulness in time-lapse confocal microscopy. Current methods of mounting zebrafish embryos and larvae for imaging consist mainly of mounting in low percentage, low melting temperature agarose in a Petri dish. Whereas imaging methods have advanced greatly over the(More)
We report a novel approach to probe the interior of single bacterial cells at nanometre resolution by combining focused ion beam (FIB) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). After removing layers of pre-defined thickness in the order of 100 nm on the target bacterial cells with FIB milling, AFM of different modes can be employed to probe the cellular interior(More)
Polymyxin is the last-line therapy against Gram-negative 'superbugs'; however, dose-limiting nephrotoxicity can occur in up to 60% of patients after intravenous administration. Understanding the accumulation and concentration of polymyxin within renal tubular cells is essential for the development of novel strategies to ameliorate its nephrotoxicity and to(More)
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