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Bradykinin (BK) is an inflammatory mediator and one of the most potent endogenous pain-inducing substances. When released at sites of tissue damage or inflammation, or applied exogenously, BK produces acute spontaneous pain and causes hyperalgesia (increased sensitivity to potentially painful stimuli). The mechanisms underlying spontaneous pain induced by(More)
Menthol, the cooling natural product of peppermint, is widely used in medicinal preparations for the relief of acute and inflammatory pain in sports injuries, arthritis, and other painful conditions. Menthol induces the sensation of cooling by activating TRPM8, an ion channel in cold-sensitive peripheral sensory neurons. Recent studies identified additional(More)
M/KCNQ currents play a critical role in the determination of neuronal excitability. Many neurotransmitters and peptides modulate M/KCNQ current and neuronal excitability through their G protein-coupled receptors. Nerve growth factor (NGF) activates its receptor, a member of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) superfamily, and crucially modulates neuronal cell(More)
KCNQ2/3 currents are the molecular basis of the neuronal M currents that play a critical role in neuron excitability. Many neurotransmitters modulate M/KCNQ currents through their G-protein-coupled receptors. Membrane PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis and channel phosphorylation are two mechanisms that have been proposed for modulation of KCNQ2/3 currents. In this(More)
The M-type potassium channel, of which its molecular basis is constituted by KCNQ2-5 homo- or heteromultimers, plays a key role in regulating neuronal excitability and is modulated by many G protein-coupled receptors. In this study, we demonstrate that histamine inhibits KCNQ2/Q3 currents in human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells via phosphatidylinositol(More)
BACKGROUND The venoms of predators have been an excellent source of diverse highly specific peptides targeting ion channels. Here we describe the first known peptide antagonist of the nociceptor ion channel transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1). RESULTS We constructed a recombinant cDNA library encoding ∼100 diverse GPI-anchored peptide toxins(More)
Kir2.0 channels play a significant role in setting the resting membrane potential, modulating action potential wave form, and buffering extracellular potassium. One member of this family, Kir2.3, is highly expressed in the heart and brain and is modulated by a variety of factors, including arachidonic acid (AA). Using two-electrode voltage clamp and(More)
M/KCNQ potassium currents were fi rst described in sympathetic neurons (Brown and Adams, 1980). Subsequently , M/KCNQ currents have been recorded in mammalian brain neurons, including pyramidal cells of the hippocampus (Halliwell and Adams, 1982). M/ KCNQ currents play a crucial role in the stabilization of membrane potential and the modulation of neuronal(More)
BACKGROUND The rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) is important in pain expectation. Previous studies demonstrated that mechanical stimulus-induced withdrawal behaviors are spinally-mediated nocifensive reflexes in rats, but it is not known whether pain expectation is influenced by withdrawal behaviors. MATERIAL AND METHODS We reanalyzed previous(More)
Oxidation products of the naturally occurring phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphatidylcholine (PAPC), which are known as OxPAPC, accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions and at other sites of inflammation in conditions such as septic inflammation and acute lung injury to exert pro- or anti-inflammatory effects. It is currently unknown(More)