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To determine the risk factors associated with toxic-shock syndrome (TSS) in menstruating women, we conducted a retrospective telephone study of 52 cases and 52 age-matched and sex-matched controls. Fifty-two cases and 44 controls used tampons (P < 0.02). Moreover, in case-control pairs in which both women used tampons, cases were more likely than controls(More)
Toxic-shock syndrome (TSS) is believed to be caused by a toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus. An exotoxin has been identified that is associated with strains of S. aureus isolated from patients with TSS. Coded strains of S. aureus were tested for the presence of the exotoxin by polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing. Sixty isolates of S. aureus were(More)
One hundred and thirty cases of toxic shock syndrome not associated with menstruation have been reported to the Centers for Disease Control, including 57 with onset in 1981 (12% of reported cases in 1981). These cases show that the syndrome occurs in a wide range of clinical settings and is associated with Staphylococcus aureus infections at a variety of(More)
Between 1 January 1980 and 18 October 1981, investigators from the Centers for Disease Control collected information on 1407 cases of toxic shock syndrome using a nationwide passive surveillance system. Ninety-two percent of the reported cases were associated with menstruation. Information available on the type of menstrual device used shows that 99% of the(More)
Four studies assessed the frequency of vaginal Staphylococcus aureus colonization in healthy women and associated risk factors. An association was found between S. aureus vaginal colonization and colonization at the labia minora and the anterior nares. Significant risk factors associated with an increased risk of vaginal S. aureus in at least one study were(More)
The data reported in this article support the findings of Dr. Altemeier; that is, infections among surgical patients remain a serious problem today. Urinary tract infections account for approximately 40 per cent of nosocomial infections among surgical patients. Surgical wound and skin infections account for one third of the nosocomial infections among(More)
In 13 cases of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) associated with postoperative wound infections, clinical findings were similar to those observed in cases of TSS in menstruating women. While local signs of a surgical wounds infection were minimal, Staphylococcus aureus was recovered from cultures of wounds in 12 of 12 patients; multiple blood cultures were(More)