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Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Studies have reported human pathogens to have geographically structured population genetics, some of which have been linked to ancient human migrations. However, no study has addressed the potential evolutionary consequences of such longstanding human-pathogen(More)
BACKGROUND Shortening the course of treatment for tuberculosis would be a major improvement for case management and disease control. This phase 3 trial assessed the efficacy and safety of a 4-month gatifloxacin-containing regimen for treating rifampin-sensitive pulmonary tuberculosis. METHODS We conducted a noninferiority, randomized, open-label,(More)
BACKGROUND Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is essential to successful treatment of HIV infection. Two recent studies reported a negative correlation between marijuana use and adherence to ART. Some patients, however, report that smoking marijuana improves adherence to ART. This study therefore sought to identify which subgroups of patients may(More)
Mycobacterium africanum consists of two phylogenetically distinct lineages within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, known as M. africanum West African 1 and M. africanum West African 2. These lineages are restricted to West Africa, where they cause up to half of human pulmonary tuberculosis. In this review we discuss the definition of M. africanum,(More)
BACKGROUND Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) infects approximately 2 billion people world-wide resulting in almost 2 million deaths per year. Determining biomarkers that distinguish different stages of tuberculosis (TB) infection and disease will provide tools for more effective diagnosis and ultimately aid in the development of new vaccine candidates. The(More)
BACKGROUND Studies of Tuberculosis (TB) case contacts are increasingly being utilised for understanding the relationship between M. tuberculosis and the human host and for assessing new interventions and diagnostic tests. We aimed to identify the incidence rate of new TB cases among TB contacts and to relate this to their initial Mantoux and ELISPOT test(More)
BACKGROUND Very little longitudinal information is available regarding the performance of T cell-based tests for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. To address this deficiency, we conducted a longitudinal assessment of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot test (ELISPOT) test in comparison to the standard tuberculin skin test (TST). METHODS AND FINDINGS(More)
RATIONALE The optimal length of tuberculosis treatment in patients coinfected with HIV is unknown. OBJECTIVES To evaluate treatment outcomes for HIV-infected patients stratified by duration of rifamycin-based tuberculosis therapy. METHODS We retrospectively reviewed data on all patients with tuberculosis reported to the San Francisco Tuberculosis(More)
BACKGROUND There is considerable variability in the outcome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. We hypothesized that Mycobacterium africanum was less likely than M. tuberculosis to transmit and progress to tuberculosis disease. METHODS In a cohort study of patients with tuberculosis and their household contacts in The Gambia, we categorized 1808(More)
BACKGROUND Mycobacterium africanum, a member of the M. tuberculosis complex that is infrequently found outside of western Africa, is the cause of up to half of the tuberculosis cases there. METHODS We genotyped mycobacterial isolates obtained from a study of patients with tuberculosis and their household contacts and compared T cell responses and(More)