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Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Studies have reported human pathogens to have geographically structured population genetics, some of which have been linked to ancient human migrations. However, no study has addressed the potential evolutionary consequences of such longstanding human-pathogen(More)
BACKGROUND Shortening the course of treatment for tuberculosis would be a major improvement for case management and disease control. This phase 3 trial assessed the efficacy and safety of a 4-month gatifloxacin-containing regimen for treating rifampin-sensitive pulmonary tuberculosis. METHODS We conducted a noninferiority, randomized, open-label,(More)
BACKGROUND Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is essential to successful treatment of HIV infection. Two recent studies reported a negative correlation between marijuana use and adherence to ART. Some patients, however, report that smoking marijuana improves adherence to ART. This study therefore sought to identify which subgroups of patients may(More)
Mycobacterium bovis is best identified by screening those isolates of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex that have any pyrazinamide (PZA) resistance, using a confirmatory test such as spoligotyping, biochemical testing, or genomic deletion analysis. The sensitivity for detection of M. bovis is lowered to 82% when only PZA-monoresistant isolates are(More)
BACKGROUND Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a global public health problem. Adequate management requires baseline drug-resistance prevalence data. In West Africa, due to a poor laboratory infrastructure and inadequate capacity, such data are scarce. Therefore, the true extent of drug-resistant TB was hitherto undetermined. In 2008, a new research(More)
Leprosy and Buruli ulcer (BU), after tuberculosis (TB), are the 2 and 3 most common mycobacterial diseases in humans, and are included in the World Health Organization’s (WHO) list of 17 neglected tropical diseases (NTD). Despite the declaration of leprosy elimination by WHO in 2000 in most countries, leprosy incidence remains fairly stable, highlighting(More)
SETTING Long transportation times of samples to culture laboratories can lead to higher contamination rates and significant loss of viability, resulting in lower culture positivity rates. Thin-layer agar (TLA) is a sensitive culture method for the isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that has been optimised with N-acetyl-L-cysteine-sodium hydroxide(More)
Mycobacterium africanum consists of two phylogenetically distinct lineages within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, known as M. africanum West African 1 and M. africanum West African 2. These lineages are restricted to West Africa, where they cause up to half of human pulmonary tuberculosis. In this review we discuss the definition of M. africanum,(More)
BACKGROUND Studies of Tuberculosis (TB) case contacts are increasingly being utilised for understanding the relationship between M. tuberculosis and the human host and for assessing new interventions and diagnostic tests. We aimed to identify the incidence rate of new TB cases among TB contacts and to relate this to their initial Mantoux and ELISPOT test(More)
BACKGROUND Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) infects approximately 2 billion people world-wide resulting in almost 2 million deaths per year. Determining biomarkers that distinguish different stages of tuberculosis (TB) infection and disease will provide tools for more effective diagnosis and ultimately aid in the development of new vaccine candidates. The(More)