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The large number of protein kinases makes it impractical to determine their specificities and substrates experimentally. Using the available crystal structures, molecular modeling, and sequence analyses of kinases and substrates, we developed a set of rules governing the binding of a heptapeptide substrate motif (surrounding the phosphorylation site) to the(More)
Cytoplasmic plant immune receptors recognize specific pathogen effector proteins and initiate effector-triggered immunity. In Arabidopsis, the immune receptors RPS4 and RRS1 are both required to activate defense to three different pathogens. We show that RPS4 and RRS1 physically associate. Crystal structures of the N-terminal Toll-interleukin-1(More)
Solenoid proteins contain repeating structural units that form a continuous superhelix. This category of proteins conveys the least complicated relationship between a sequence and the corresponding three-dimensional structure. Although solenoid proteins are divided into different classes according to commonly used classification schemes, they share many(More)
The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are members of a larger group of serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) protein kinases from the mitogen-activated protein kinase family. JNKs were originally identified as stress-activated protein kinases in the livers of cycloheximide-challenged rats. Their subsequent purification, cloning, and naming as JNKs have emphasized their(More)
BIOLOGY IS ENCODED IN MOLECULAR SEQUENCES: deciphering this encoding remains a grand scientific challenge. Functional regions of DNA, RNA, and protein sequences often exhibit characteristic but subtle motifs; thus, computational discovery of motifs in sequences is a fundamental and much-studied problem. However, most current algorithms do not allow for(More)
Transition row metal ions are both essential and toxic to microorganisms. Zinc in excess has significant toxicity to bacteria, and host release of Zn(II) at mucosal surfaces is an important innate defence mechanism. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Zn(II) affords protection have not been defined. We show that in Streptococcus pneumoniae(More)
Predikin is a system for making predictions about protein kinase specificity. It was declared the "best performer" in the protein kinase section of the Peptide Recognition Domain specificity prediction category of the recent DREAM4 challenge (an independent test using unpublished data). In this article we discuss some recent improvements to the Predikin web(More)
Dengue and related flaviviruses represent a significant global health threat. The envelope glycoprotein E mediates virus attachment to a host cell and the subsequent fusion of viral and host cell membranes. The fusion process is driven by conformational changes in the E protein and is an essential step in the virus life cycle. In this study, we analyzed the(More)
MOTIVATION Nucleo-cytoplasmic trafficking of proteins is a core regulatory process that sustains the integrity of the nuclear space of eukaryotic cells via an interplay between numerous factors. Despite progress on experimentally characterizing a number of nuclear localization signals, their presence alone remains an unreliable indicator of actual(More)
Plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) disease resistance (R) proteins recognize specific "avirulent" pathogen effectors and activate immune responses. NB-LRR proteins structurally and functionally resemble mammalian Nod-like receptors (NLRs). How NB-LRR and NLR proteins activate defense is poorly understood. The divergently transcribed(More)