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Leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) are 20-29-residue sequence motifs present in a number of proteins with diverse functions. The primary function of these motifs appears to be to provide a versatile structural framework for the formation of protein-protein interactions. The past two years have seen an explosion of new structural information on proteins with LRRs.(More)
Leucine-rich repeats are short sequence motifs present in a number of proteins with diverse functions and cellular locations. All proteins containing these repeats are thought to be involved in protein-protein interactions. The crystal structure of ribonuclease inhibitor protein has revealed that leucine-rich repeats correspond to beta-alpha structural(More)
Plant resistance proteins (R proteins) recognize corresponding pathogen avirulence (Avr) proteins either indirectly through detection of changes in their host protein targets or through direct R-Avr protein interaction. Although indirect recognition imposes selection against Avr effector function, pathogen effector molecules recognized through direct(More)
The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) are members of a larger group of serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) protein kinases from the mitogen-activated protein kinase family. JNKs were originally identified as stress-activated protein kinases in the livers of cycloheximide-challenged rats. Their subsequent purification, cloning, and naming as JNKs have emphasized their(More)
The leucine-rich repeat is a recently characterized structural motif used in molecular recognition processes as diverse as signal transduction, cell adhesion, cell development, DNA repair and RNA processing. We present here the crystal structure at 2.5 A resolution of the complex between ribonuclease A and ribonuclease inhibitor, a protein built entirely of(More)
Although proteins are translated on cytoplasmic ribosomes, many of these proteins play essential roles in the nucleus, mediating key cellular processes including but not limited to DNA replication and repair as well as transcription and RNA processing. Thus, understanding how these critical nuclear proteins are accurately targeted to the nucleus is of(More)
BIOLOGY IS ENCODED IN MOLECULAR SEQUENCES: deciphering this encoding remains a grand scientific challenge. Functional regions of DNA, RNA, and protein sequences often exhibit characteristic but subtle motifs; thus, computational discovery of motifs in sequences is a fundamental and much-studied problem. However, most current algorithms do not allow for(More)
  • B Kobe
  • Nature structural biology
  • 1999
Importin alpha is the nuclear import receptor that recognizes classical monopartite and bipartite nuclear localization signals (NLSs). The structure of mouse importin alpha has been determined at 2.5 A resolution. The structure shows a large C-terminal domain containing armadillo repeats, and a less structured N-terminal importin beta-binding domain(More)
Importin-alpha is the nuclear import receptor that recognizes cargo proteins which contain classical monopartite and bipartite nuclear localization sequences (NLSs), and facilitates their transport into the nucleus. To determine the structural basis of the recognition of the two classes of NLSs by mammalian importin-alpha, we co-crystallized an N-terminally(More)
The large number of protein kinases makes it impractical to determine their specificities and substrates experimentally. Using the available crystal structures, molecular modeling, and sequence analyses of kinases and substrates, we developed a set of rules governing the binding of a heptapeptide substrate motif (surrounding the phosphorylation site) to the(More)