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Interferons play key roles in mediating antiviral and antigrowth responses and in modulating immune response. The main signaling pathways are rapid and direct. They involve tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription factors by Janus tyrosine kinases at the cell membrane, followed by release of signal(More)
The pleiotropic activities of interferons (IFNs) are mediated primarily through the transcriptional regulation of many downstream effector genes. The mRNA profiles from IFN-alpha, -beta, or -gamma treatments of the human fibrosarcoma cell line, HT1080, were determined by using oligonucleotide arrays with probe sets corresponding to more than 6,800 human(More)
Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) has been implicated in interferon (IFN) induction, antiviral response and tumor suppression. We have generated mice devoid of functional PKR (Pkr%). Although the mice are physically normal and the induction of type I IFN genes by poly(I).poly(C) (pIC) and virus is unimpaired, the antiviral response induced(More)
The double-stranded (ds) RNA-activated protein kinase from human cells is a 68 kd protein (p68 kinase) induced by interferon. On activation by dsRNA in the presence of ATP, the kinase becomes autophosphorylated and can catalyze the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eIF2, which leads to an inhibition of the initiation of protein synthesis. Here we(More)
The double stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase PKR is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine protein kinase that is induced by interferon and activated by dsRNA, cytokine, growth factor and stress signals. It is essential for cells to respond adequately to different stresses including growth factor deprivation, products of the inflammatory(More)
The interferon (IFN)-inducible double-stranded-RNA (dsRNA)-activated serine-threonine protein kinase (PKR) is a major mediator of the antiviral and antiproliferative activities of IFNs. PKR has been implicated in different stress-induced signaling pathways including dsRNA signaling to nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB). The mechanism by which PKR mediates(More)
Activation of 2-5A-dependent ribonuclease by 5'-phosphorylated, 2',5'-linked oligoadenylates, known as 2-5A, is one pathway of interferon action. Unaided uptake into HeLa cells of 2-5A linked to an antisense oligonucleotide resulted in the selective ablation of messenger RNA for the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase PKR. Similarly,(More)
The double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding domain of the human p68 kinase has been localized to the N-terminal half of the enzyme by using progressive deletion analysis and in vitro binding assays. To further define the domains responsible for binding to dsRNA, we cloned the mouse dsRNA-activated p65 kinase and used sequence alignment to identify conserved(More)
Interferons (IFNs) are a family of multifunctional cytokines that activate transcription of subsets of genes. The gene products induced by IFNs are responsible for IFN antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory properties. To obtain a more comprehensive list and a better understanding of the genes regulated by IFNs, we compiled data from many(More)