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All humans are continuously exposed to inhaled Aspergillus conidia, yet healthy hosts clear the organism without developing disease and without the development of antibody- or cell-mediated acquired immunity to this organism. This suggests that for most healthy humans, innate immunity is sufficient to clear the organism. A failure of these defenses results(More)
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is a devastating complication of immunosuppression, which occurs in association with neutrophil dysfunction or deficiency. ELR+ CXC chemokines are a subfamily of chemokines that play a critical role in neutrophil chemotaxis and activation both in vitro and in vivo. We hypothesized that interaction of these ligands with CXC(More)
Neuroimaging findings in cases of St. Louis encephalitis (StLE) have yet to be reported despite the relatively high frequency of this entity. An epidemic permitted the documentation of isolated hyperintensity of the substantia nigra on T2-weighted images in two patients with StLE. This distribution of MR imaging abnormality in cases of StLE mirrors the(More)
The resident fibroblast has been traditionally viewed as the primary cell involved in promoting pulmonary fibrosis. However, contemporary findings now support the concept of a circulating cell (fibrocyte) that also contributes to pulmonary fibrosis. Fibrocytes are bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells that express a variety of cell surface(More)
Chemokines have been found to exert direct, defensin-like antimicrobial activity in vitro, suggesting that, in addition to orchestrating cellular accumulation and activation, chemokines may contribute directly to the innate host response against infection. No observations have been made, however, demonstrating direct chemokine-mediated promotion of host(More)
Fibrosis is the end result of a complex series of events that follow tissue injury and inflammation. Pathophysiologic fibrosis results in permanent scar formation, and can impair organ function. Fibrocytes are circulating, bone-marrow-derived progenitor cells that traffic from the bone marrow to the injured organ via the bloodstream, where they(More)
BACKGROUND In patients with chronic ischemic heart disease (IHD), the presence and extent of spontaneously visible coronary collaterals are powerful determinants of clinical outcome. There is marked heterogeneity in the recruitment of coronary collaterals amongst patients with similar degrees of coronary artery stenoses, but the biological basis of this(More)
Hepcidin is the master regulator of iron homeostasis in vertebrates. The synthesis of hepcidin is induced by systemic iron levels and by inflammatory stimuli. While the role of hepcidin in iron regulation is well established, its contribution to host defense is emerging as complex and multifaceted. In this review, we summarize the literature on the role of(More)
UNLABELLED BACKGROUND HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) have pleiotropic effects that are independent of cholesterol-lowering, including a dose-dependent effect on angiogenesis. Angiogenesis plays a critical role both in vascularization of the chronically ischemic myocardium and in stabilization of atherosclerotic plaques. Chemokines, a family of(More)
Chemokines are best recognized for their role within the innate immune system as chemotactic cytokines, signaling and recruiting host immune cells to sites of infection. Certain chemokines, such as CXCL10, have been found to play an additional role in innate immunity, mediating CXCR3-independent killing of a diverse array of pathogenic microorganisms. While(More)