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Survival from murine pulmonary nocardiosis is highly dependent on CXC chemokine receptor-2 (CXCR2) ligand-mediated neutrophil chemotaxis and subsequent clearance of the infectious agent Nocardia asteroides. Intratracheal inoculation of N. asteroides rapidly up-regulated the CXC chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and KC within 24 h, with(More)
All humans are continuously exposed to inhaled Aspergillus conidia, yet healthy hosts clear the organism without developing disease and without the development of antibody- or cell-mediated acquired immunity to this organism. This suggests that for most healthy humans, innate immunity is sufficient to clear the organism. A failure of these defenses results(More)
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is a devastating complication of immunosuppression, which occurs in association with neutrophil dysfunction or deficiency. ELR+ CXC chemokines are a subfamily of chemokines that play a critical role in neutrophil chemotaxis and activation both in vitro and in vivo. We hypothesized that interaction of these ligands with CXC(More)
Pulmonary infection due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa has emerged as a leading cause of mortality. A vigorous host response is required to effectively clear the organisms from the lungs. This host defense is dependent on the recruitment and activation of neutrophils and macrophages. A family of chemotactic cytokines (chemokines) has been shown to participate in(More)
Angiogenesis and vascular remodeling support fibroproliferative processes; however, no study has addressed the importance of angiogenesis during fibro-obliteration of the allograft airway during bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) that occurs after lung transplantation. The ELR(+) CXC chemokines both mediate neutrophil recruitment and promote(More)
Neuroimaging findings in cases of St. Louis encephalitis (StLE) have yet to be reported despite the relatively high frequency of this entity. An epidemic permitted the documentation of isolated hyperintensity of the substantia nigra on T2-weighted images in two patients with StLE. This distribution of MR imaging abnormality in cases of StLE mirrors the(More)
The resident fibroblast has been traditionally viewed as the primary cell involved in promoting pulmonary fibrosis. However, contemporary findings now support the concept of a circulating cell (fibrocyte) that also contributes to pulmonary fibrosis. Fibrocytes are bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells that express a variety of cell surface(More)
Chemokines have been found to exert direct, defensin-like antimicrobial activity in vitro, suggesting that, in addition to orchestrating cellular accumulation and activation, chemokines may contribute directly to the innate host response against infection. No observations have been made, however, demonstrating direct chemokine-mediated promotion of host(More)
Fibrocytes are bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells that express markers of leukocytes, haematopoietic progenitor cells, and fibroblasts. They play a pivotal role in tissue remodelling and fibrosis in both physiologic and pathologic settings. Fibrocytes are unique in that they are capable of differentiating into fibroblasts and myofibroblasts,(More)