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Survival from murine pulmonary nocardiosis is highly dependent on CXC chemokine receptor-2 (CXCR2) ligand-mediated neutrophil chemotaxis and subsequent clearance of the infectious agent Nocardia asteroides. Intratracheal inoculation of N. asteroides rapidly up-regulated the CXC chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and KC within 24 h, with(More)
All humans are continuously exposed to inhaled Aspergillus conidia, yet healthy hosts clear the organism without developing disease and without the development of antibody- or cell-mediated acquired immunity to this organism. This suggests that for most healthy humans, innate immunity is sufficient to clear the organism. A failure of these defenses results(More)
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is a devastating complication of immunosuppression, which occurs in association with neutrophil dysfunction or deficiency. ELR+ CXC chemokines are a subfamily of chemokines that play a critical role in neutrophil chemotaxis and activation both in vitro and in vivo. We hypothesized that interaction of these ligands with CXC(More)
Pulmonary infection due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa has emerged as a leading cause of mortality. A vigorous host response is required to effectively clear the organisms from the lungs. This host defense is dependent on the recruitment and activation of neutrophils and macrophages. A family of chemotactic cytokines (chemokines) has been shown to participate in(More)
Neuroimaging findings in cases of St. Louis encephalitis (StLE) have yet to be reported despite the relatively high frequency of this entity. An epidemic permitted the documentation of isolated hyperintensity of the substantia nigra on T2-weighted images in two patients with StLE. This distribution of MR imaging abnormality in cases of StLE mirrors the(More)
The resident fibroblast has been traditionally viewed as the primary cell involved in promoting pulmonary fibrosis. However, contemporary findings now support the concept of a circulating cell (fibrocyte) that also contributes to pulmonary fibrosis. Fibrocytes are bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells that express a variety of cell surface(More)
Chemokines have been found to exert direct, defensin-like antimicrobial activity in vitro, suggesting that, in addition to orchestrating cellular accumulation and activation, chemokines may contribute directly to the innate host response against infection. No observations have been made, however, demonstrating direct chemokine-mediated promotion of host(More)
Fibrosis is the end result of a complex series of events that follow tissue injury and inflammation. Pathophysiologic fibrosis results in permanent scar formation, and can impair organ function. Fibrocytes are circulating, bone-marrow-derived progenitor cells that traffic from the bone marrow to the injured organ via the bloodstream, where they(More)
BACKGROUND In patients with chronic ischemic heart disease (IHD), the presence and extent of spontaneously visible coronary collaterals are powerful determinants of clinical outcome. There is marked heterogeneity in the recruitment of coronary collaterals amongst patients with similar degrees of coronary artery stenoses, but the biological basis of this(More)
The genetic predisposition to many autoimmune diseases is inherited as a polygenic trait. It is conceivable that some of the causative alleles in these diseases became prevalent in the population by conferring a survival benefit against environmental assaults, such as infections. We used mice cogenic for genetic loci predisposing to systemic lupus(More)