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Extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes and microvesicles, are released by different cell types and participate in physiological and pathophysiological processes. EVs mediate intercellular communication as cell-derived extracellular signalling organelles that transmit specific information from their cell of origin to their target cells. As a result(More)
We determined the effects in preterm lambs of endotoxin-induced inflammation at early gestational ages on lung function and structure and on the surfactant system. Pregnant ewes were randomized to one of five intra-amniotic endotoxin (Escherichia coli 055:B5) groups: 1 mg injected at 60 days of gestation, 1 mg at 80 days, 1 mg at 100 days, 1 mg at 60 days(More)
BACKGROUND Accumulating evidence implicates early life factors in the aetiology of non-communicable diseases, including asthma/wheezing disorders. We undertook a systematic review investigating risks of asthma/wheezing disorders in children born preterm, including the increasing numbers who, as a result of advances in neonatal care, now survive very preterm(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition molecules that initiate innate immune responses. Intra-amniotic exposure of fetal sheep to pro-inflammatory stimuli causes pulmonary inflammation and induced lung maturation. We examined TLR ontogeny and fetal lung responsiveness to three different TLR agonists. We cloned ovine TLRs 2, 3, and 4 and found(More)
RATIONALE Chorioamnionitis is associated with preterm delivery and involution of the fetal thymus. Women at risk of preterm delivery receive antenatal corticosteroids which accelerate fetal lung maturation and improve neonatal outcome. However, the effects of antenatal corticosteroids on the fetal thymus in the settings of chorioamnionitis are largely(More)
BACKGROUND Signaling networks promoting cell growth and proliferation are frequently deregulated in cancer. Tumors often are highly dependent on such signaling pathways and may become hypersensitive to downregulation of key components within these signaling cascades. The classical mitogenic cascade transmits stimuli from growth factor receptors via Ras,(More)
In a model of human chorioamnionitis, fetal sheep exposed to a single injection, but not repeated injections, of intra-amniotic endotoxin develop lung injury responses. We hypothesized that repeated exposure to intra-amniotic endotoxin induces endotoxin tolerance. Fetal sheep were given intra-amniotic injections of saline (control) or Escherichia coli LPS(More)
Chorioamnionitis and fetal sepsis can induce a fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS) which is closely related to the development of white matter injury in the fetal brain. Large epidemiological studies support the link between FIRS and fetal brain injury with a clear association between the presence of in utero inflammation and neurodevelopmental(More)
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is one of the most important causes of brain injury in preterm infants. Preterm HIE is predominantly caused by global hypoxia-ischemia (HI). In contrast, focal ischemia is most common in the adult brain and known to result in cerebral inflammation and activation of the peripheral immune system. These inflammatory(More)
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is being used clinically to avoid mechanical ventilation of preterm infants as a strategy to minimize lung injury. There is little experimental information about how CPAP might minimize lung injury after preterm birth. We induced preterm labor in antenatal glucocorticoid-treated sheep carrying twins at 133 d(More)