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Provided the measuring time is short enough, the full counting statistics (FCS) of the charge pumped across a barrier as a result of a series of voltage pulses are shown to be equivalent to the geometry of two planes. This formulation leads to the FCS without the need for the usual nonequilibrium (Keldysh) transport theory or the direct computation of the(More)
We describe an initiative under way at Warwick to provide a technical foundation for computer-aided learning and computer-assisted assessment tools, which allows a rich dialogue sensitive to individual students' response patterns. The system distinguishes between dialogues for individual problems and the linking of problems. This enables a subject(More)
We report exact nonperturbative results for the Fermi-edge singularity in the absorption spectrum of an out-of-equilibrium tunnel junction. We consider two metals with chemical potential difference V separated by a tunneling barrier containing a defect, which exists in one of two states. When it is in its excited state, tunneling through the otherwise(More)
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