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Two years ago, genes coding for voltage-gated proton channels in humans, mice and Ciona intestinalis were discovered. Transfection of cDNA encoding the human HVCN1 (H(V)1) or mouse (mVSOP) ortholog of HVCN1 into mammalian cells results in currents that are extremely similar to native proton currents, with a subtle, but functionally important, difference.(More)
The two-pore-domain potassium channels TASK-1, TASK-3 and TASK-5 possess a conserved C-terminal motif of five amino acids. Truncation of the C-terminus of TASK-1 strongly reduced the currents measured after heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes or HEK293 cells and decreased surface membrane expression of GFP-tagged channel proteins. Two-hybrid analysis(More)
The ion selectivity of pumps and channels is central to their ability to perform a multitude of functions. Here we investigate the mechanism of the extraordinary selectivity of the human voltage-gated proton channel, H(V)1 (also known as HVCN1). This selectivity is essential to its ability to regulate reactive oxygen species production by leukocytes,(More)
Voltage-gated proton channels are strongly inhibited by Zn(2+), which binds to His residues. However, in a molecular model, the two externally accessible His are too far apart to coordinate Zn(2+). We hypothesize that high-affinity Zn(2+) binding occurs at the dimer interface between pairs of His residues from both monomers. Consistent with this idea,(More)
The voltage-gated proton channel exists as a dimer, although each protomer has a separate conduction pathway, and when forced to exist as a monomer, most major functions are retained. However, the proton channel protomers appear to interact during gating. Proton channel dimerization is thought to result mainly from coiled-coil interaction of the(More)
The potassium channels TASK-1 and TASK-3 show high sequence homology but differ in their sensitivity to extracellular divalent cations. Heterologous expression in HEK293 cells showed that the single-channel conductance of TASK-3 increased approximately four-fold after removal of external divalent cations, whereas the conductance of TASK-1 was unaffected.(More)
Fogel and Hastings first hypothesized the existence of voltage-gated proton channels in 1972 in bioluminescent dinoflagellates, where they were thought to trigger the flash by activating luciferase. Proton channel genes were subsequently identified in human, mouse, and Ciona intestinalis, but their existence in dinoflagellates remained unconfirmed. We(More)
The topological similarity of voltage-gated proton channels (H(V)1s) to the voltage-sensing domain (VSD) of other voltage-gated ion channels raises the central question of whether H(V)1s have a similar structure. We present the construction and validation of a homology model of the human H(V)1 (hH(V)1). Multiple structural alignment was used to construct(More)
Extraordinary selectivity is crucial to all proton-conducting molecules, including the human voltage-gated proton channel (hHV1), because the proton concentration is >10(6) times lower than that of other cations. Here we use "selectivity filter scanning" to elucidate the molecular requirements for proton-specific conduction in hHV1. Asp(112), in the middle(More)
Voltage-gated proton channels, HV1, trigger bioluminescence in dinoflagellates, enable calcification in coccolithophores, and play multifarious roles in human health. Because the proton concentration is minuscule, exquisite selectivity for protons over other ions is critical to HV1 function. The selectivity of the open HV1 channel requires an aspartate near(More)