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Two years ago, genes coding for voltage-gated proton channels in humans, mice and Ciona intestinalis were discovered. Transfection of cDNA encoding the human HVCN1 (H(V)1) or mouse (mVSOP) ortholog of HVCN1 into mammalian cells results in currents that are extremely similar to native proton currents, with a subtle, but functionally important, difference.(More)
The two-pore-domain potassium channels TASK-1, TASK-3 and TASK-5 possess a conserved C-terminal motif of five amino acids. Truncation of the C-terminus of TASK-1 strongly reduced the currents measured after heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes or HEK293 cells and decreased surface membrane expression of GFP-tagged channel proteins. Two-hybrid analysis(More)
The ion selectivity of pumps and channels is central to their ability to perform a multitude of functions. Here we investigate the mechanism of the extraordinary selectivity of the human voltage-gated proton channel, H(V)1 (also known as HVCN1). This selectivity is essential to its ability to regulate reactive oxygen species production by leukocytes,(More)
Voltage-gated proton channels are strongly inhibited by Zn(2+), which binds to His residues. However, in a molecular model, the two externally accessible His are too far apart to coordinate Zn(2+). We hypothesize that high-affinity Zn(2+) binding occurs at the dimer interface between pairs of His residues from both monomers. Consistent with this idea,(More)
Phagocytosis of microbial invaders represents a fundamental defense mechanism of the innate immune system. The subsequent killing of microbes is initiated by the respiratory burst, in which nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase generates vast amounts of superoxide anion, precursor to bactericidal reactive oxygen species. Cytoplasmic pH(More)
The voltage-gated proton channel exists as a dimer, although each protomer has a separate conduction pathway, and when forced to exist as a monomer, most major functions are retained. However, the proton channel protomers appear to interact during gating. Proton channel dimerization is thought to result mainly from coiled-coil interaction of the(More)
The effects of low concentrations of extracellular ATP on cytosolic Ca(2+), membrane potential, and transcription of IL-6 were studied in monocyte-derived human macrophages. During inflammation or infection many cells secrete ATP. We show here that application of 10 microM ATP or 10 microM UTP induces oscillations in cytosolic Ca(2+) with a frequency of(More)
Voltage-gated proton currents regulate generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in phagocytic cells. In B cells, stimulation of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) results in the production of ROS that participate in B cell activation, but the involvement of proton channels is unknown. We report here that the voltage-gated proton channel HVCN1 associated(More)
Eosinophils and other phagocytes use NADPH oxidase to kill bacteria. Proton channels in human eosinophils and neutrophils are thought to sustain NADPH oxidase activity, and their opening is greatly enhanced by a variety of NADPH oxidase activators, including phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). In nonphagocytic cells that lack NADPH oxidase, no clear effect of(More)
Fogel and Hastings first hypothesized the existence of voltage-gated proton channels in 1972 in bioluminescent dinoflagellates, where they were thought to trigger the flash by activating luciferase. Proton channel genes were subsequently identified in human, mouse, and Ciona intestinalis, but their existence in dinoflagellates remained unconfirmed. We(More)