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This paper presents an approach to time-optimal kinodynamic motion planning for a mobile robot. A global path planner is used to generate collision-free straight-line paths from the robot's position to a given goal location. With waypoints of this path, an initial trajectory is generated which defines the planned position of the robot over time. A velocity(More)
People in densely populated environments typically form groups that split and merge. In this paper we track groups of people so as to reflect this formation process and gain efficiency in situations where maintaining the state of individual people would be intractable. We pose the group tracking problem as a recursive multi-hypothesis model selection(More)
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)-alginate composite beads were synthesized using three different approaches as filler materials of packed columns for simultaneous filtration-disinfection as an alternative portable water treatment process. The prepared composite beads were packed into a column through which Escherichia coli containing water was filtered to(More)
This paper presents novel, highly efficient approaches for updating Euclidean distance maps and Voronoi diagrams represented on grid maps. Our methods employ a dynamic variant of the brushfire algorithm to update only those cells that are actually affected by changes in the environment. In experiments in different environments we show that our update(More)
As engineered nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly used, their entry into the environment has become an important topic for water sustainability. Recent investigations point to the critical role of natural organic matter (NOM) in altering the persistence of NPs by complexing with their surfaces. The NP-NOM complex, in turn, is the new entity that may(More)
People in densely populated environments typically form groups that split and merge. In this paper we track groups of people so as to reflect this formation process and gain efficiency in situations where maintaining the state of individual people would be intractable. We pose the group tracking problem as a recursive multi-hypothesis model selection(More)
As nanoparticles (NPs) enter into biological systems, they are immediately exposed to a variety and concentration of proteins. The physicochemical interactions between proteins and NPs are influenced by the surface properties of the NPs. To identify the effects of NP surface heterogeneity, the interactions between bovine serum albumin (BSA) and gold NPs(More)
Nanoparticulate metal sulfides such as ZnS can influence the transport and bioavailability of pollutant metals in anaerobic environments. The aim of this work was to investigate how the composition of dissolved natural organic matter (NOM) influences the stability of zinc sulfide nanoparticles as they nucleate and aggregate in water with dissolved NOM. We(More)
The presence of waterborne enteric pathogens in municipal water supplies contributes risk to public health. To evaluate the removal of these pathogens in drinking water treatment processes, previous researchers have spiked raw waters with up to 10(6) pathogens/L in order to reliably detect the pathogens in treated water. These spike doses are 6-8 orders of(More)
With a growing number of robots deployed in populated environments, the ability to detect and track humans, recognize their activities, attributes and social relations are key components for future service robots. In this article we will consider fundamentals towards these goals and present several results using 2D range data. We first propose a learning(More)