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With the increasing efficiency of life-support systems and better intensive care, more patients survive severe injuries of the brain and spinal cord. Many of these patients experience locked-in syndrome: The active mind is locked in a paralyzed body. Consequently, communication is extremely restricted or impossible. A muscle-independent communication(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the presence of electrophysiological indicators of remaining cortical functions in patients with persistent vegetative state (PVS) and minimally conscious state (MCS). Previous electrophysiological and PET data indicated that some PVS patients have partially intact cortical processing functions. However, it remains unclear whether the(More)
OBJECTIVE To test a training procedure designed to enable severely paralyzed patients to communicate by means of self-regulation of slow cortical potentials. DESIGN Application of the Thought Translation Device to evaluate the procedure in patients with late-stage amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). SETTING Training sessions in the patients' homes. (More)
The thought translation device trains locked-in patients to self-regulate slow cortical potentials (SCP's) of their electroencephalogram (EEG). After operant learning of SCP self-control, patients select letters, words or pictograms in a computerized language support program. Results of five respirated, locked-in-patients are described, demonstrating the(More)
PURPOSE To compare self-regulation of low-frequency EEG components (slow cortical potentials, SCPs) with other methods of seizure control for patients with drug-refractory partial epilepsy and to separate the real anticonvulsive effect from placebo effects. METHODS Results of a treatment program of SCP self-regulation (experimental group) are compared(More)
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by emotional dysregulation and a high prevalence of traumatic stress. Recent estimates suggest that 2-6% of non-clinical populations suffer from BPD. Despite this relevance, this is the first study considering the neural mechanisms underlying trauma-history and temporal features of cognitive reappraisal(More)
Using brain-computer interfaces (BCI) humans can select letters or other targets on a computer screen without any muscular involvement. An intensively investigated kind of BCI is based on the recording of visual event-related brain potentials (ERP). However, some severely paralyzed patients who need a BCI for communication have impaired vision or lack(More)
This is a brief review of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) as indices of cortical information processing in conditions in which conscious perception of stimuli is supposed to be absent: sleep, coma, vegetative state, general anesthesia, neglect as well as presentation of subliminal or masked stimuli. Exogenous ERP components such as N1 and P2 are much(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW To summarize recent developments and look at important future aspects of brain-computer interfaces. RECENT FINDINGS Recent brain-computer interface studies are largely targeted at helping severely or even completely paralysed patients. The former are only able to communicate yes or no via a single muscle twitch, and the latter are(More)
Cognitive functions have never been studied before in completely paralyzed patients, probably due to the lack of the appropriate method. In this study, three male patients in the last stage of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are examined. They were totally locked-in, i.e., incapable of any voluntary response including eye movements. Given this complete(More)