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We try to understand and to develop some of the basic quantum mechanics of neutrino oscillation. First, we observe that measurements which identify the physical neutrino (mass eigenstate) involved in each event of an experiment destroy any oscillation pattern. We explain how these measurements do that. Then, we construct a wave packet treatment of neutrino(More)
There is now compelling evidence that atmospheric, solar, accelerator, and reactor neutrinos change from one flavor to another. This implies that neutrinos have masses and that leptons mix. In this review, we discuss the physics of flavor change and the evidence for it, summarize what has been learned so far about neutrino masses and leptonic mixing,(More)
I. The physics of flavor change: The rather convincing evidence that atmospheric neutrinos change from one flavor to another has now been joined by new, very strong evidence that the solar neutrinos do this as well. Neutrino flavor change implies that neutrinos have nonzero masses. That is, there is a spectrum of three or more neutrino mass eigenstates,(More)
Nine healthy subjects (age 31 +/- 4 yr) exercised with and without expiratory-flow limitation (maximal flow approximately 1 l/s). We monitored flow, end-tidal PCO2, esophageal (Pes) and gastric pressures, changes in end-expiratory lung volume, and perception (sensation) of difficulty in breathing. Subjects cycled at increasing intensity (+25 W/30 s) until(More)
The weak phase 7 is conventionally probed by the B~p~ mode. The predicted rate is tiny. Even if a B~-4p~ rate difference could be established, it would not be clear that sin 27 had been measured, because amplitudes with other weak phases may contribute significantly. Non-CP eigenstates, such as B~D~ K-v, have a twofold advantage over Bs~p~ Their rates are(More)
Do neutrinos have nonzero masses? If they do, then these masses are very tiny, and can be sought only in very sensitive experiments. The most sensitive of these search for neutrino oscillation, a quantum interference effect which requires neutrino mass and leptonic mixing. In these lectures, we explain what leptonic mixing is, and then develop the physics(More)