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BACKGROUND Integrin receptors, composed of transmembrane alpha and beta subunits, are essential for the development and functioning of multicellular animals. Agonist stimulation leads cells to regulate integrin affinity ("activation"), thus controlling cell adhesion and migration, controlling extracellular-matrix assembly, and contributing to angiogenesis,(More)
Increased affinity of integrins for the extracellular matrix (activation) regulates cell adhesion and migration, extracellular matrix assembly, and mechanotransduction. Major uncertainties concern the sufficiency of talin for activation, whether conformational change without clustering leads to activation, and whether mechanical force is required for(More)
Proline metabolism is linked to hyperprolinemia, schizophrenia, cutis laxa, and cancer. In the latter case, tumor cells tend to rely on proline biosynthesis rather than salvage. Proline is synthesized from either glutamate or ornithine; both are converted to pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C), and then to proline via pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductases (PYCRs).(More)
BACKGROUND Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a significant role in the fragmentation of myelin basic protein (MBP) and demyelination leading to autoimmune multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The classic MBP isoforms are predominantly expressed in the oligodendrocytes of the CNS. The splice variants of the single(More)
Mosquito-borne WNV (West Nile virus) is an emerging global threat. The NS3 proteinase, which is essential for the proteolytic processing of the viral polyprotein precursor, is a promising drug target. We have isolated and biochemically characterized the recombinant, highly active NS3 proteinase. We have determined that the NS3 proteinase functions in a(More)
The Proteolysis MAP (PMAP, http://www.proteolysis.org) is a user-friendly website intended to aid the scientific community in reasoning about proteolytic networks and pathways. PMAP is comprised of five databases, linked together in one environment. The foundation databases, ProteaseDB and SubstrateDB, are driven by an automated annotation pipeline that(More)
Talin, a 270 kDa protein containing 2541 amino acids, forms a direct link between integrins and the cytoskeleton (Critchley, 2004; Critchley, 2000). Protein domains of talin include an N-terminal globular head and a C-terminal rod. The globular head contains sequences that resemble the FERM domain found in the ERM (exrin, radixin and moesin) family of(More)
Glutamine dependence is a prominent feature of cancer metabolism, and here we show that melanoma cells, irrespective of their oncogenic background, depend on glutamine for growth. A quantitative audit of how carbon from glutamine is used showed that TCA-cycle-derived glutamate is, in most melanoma cells, the major glutamine-derived cataplerotic output and(More)
Limited or regulatory proteolysis plays a critical role in many important biological pathways like blood coagulation, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. A better understanding of mechanisms that control this process is required for discovering new proteolytic events and for developing inhibitors with potential therapeutic value. Two features that determine(More)
Recent studies highlight the importance of glutamine metabolism in metabolic reprogramming, which underlies cancer cell addiction to glutamine. Examples for the dependence on glutamine metabolism are seen across different tumor types as during different phases of cancer development, progression and response to therapy. In this perspective, we assess the(More)