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Mouse and human stem cells with features similar to those of embryonic stem cells have been derived from testicular cells. Although pluripotent stem cells have been obtained from defined germline stem cells (GSCs) of mouse neonatal testis, only multipotent stem cells have been obtained so far from defined cells of mouse adult testis. In this study we(More)
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) comprise at least two populations of cells with divergent states of pluripotency. Here, we show that epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) also comprise two distinct cell populations that can be distinguished by the expression of a specific Oct4-GFP marker. These two subpopulations, Oct4-GFP positive and negative EpiSCs, are capable of(More)
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have been generated from mouse and human somatic cells by ectopic expression of four transcription factors (OCT4 (also called POU5F1), SOX2, c-Myc and KLF4). We previously reported that Oct4 alone is sufficient to reprogram directly adult mouse neural stem cells to iPS cells. Here we report the generation of one-factor(More)
Epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) are pluripotent stem cells derived from mouse postimplantation embryos at embryonic day (E) 5.5-E7.5 at the onset of gastrulation, which makes them a valuable tool for studying mammalian postimplantation development in vitro. EpiSCs can also be reprogrammed into a mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC)-like state. Some reports have(More)
The POU domain transcription factor OCT4 is a key regulator of pluripotency in the early mammalian embryo and is highly expressed in the inner cell mass of the blastocyst. Consistent with its essential role in maintaining pluripotency, Oct4 expression is rapidly downregulated during formation of the trophoblast lineage. To enhance our understanding of the(More)
BACKGROUND Despite their distinct origins, human embryonic stem (hES) and embryonic carcinoma (hEC) cells share a number of similarities such as surface antigen expression, growth characteristics, the ability to either self-renew or differentiate, and control of the undifferentiated state by the same core transcription factors. To obtain further insights(More)
The mechanisms controlling self-renewal versus lineage commitment in human embryonic stem (hES) cells are not well understood. Nonetheless, current knowledge suggests a crucial role for TGFbeta signaling in controlling these early fate decisions. We have investigated the effects of TGFbeta pathway activation and inhibition on gene expression in hES cells.(More)
Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is known to promote self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). In addition, it has been shown that transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) signaling is crucial in that the TGFbeta/Activin/Nodal branch of the pathway needs to be activated and the bone morphogenic protein (BMP)/GDF branch repressed to prevent(More)
Reprogramming of somatic cells achieved by combination of the four transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc has very low efficiency. To increase the reprogramming efficiency and better understand the process, we sought to identify factors that mediate reprogramming with higher efficiency. We established an assay to screen nuclear fractions from(More)
Recent studies have shown that defined sets of transcription factors can directly reprogram differentiated somatic cells to a different differentiated cell type without passing through a pluripotent state, but the restricted proliferative and lineage potential of the resulting cells limits the scope of their potential applications. Here we show that a(More)