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Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have been generated from mouse and human somatic cells by ectopic expression of four transcription factors (OCT4 (also called POU5F1), SOX2, c-Myc and KLF4). We previously reported that Oct4 alone is sufficient to reprogram directly adult mouse neural stem cells to iPS cells. Here we report the generation of one-factor(More)
Recent studies have shown that defined sets of transcription factors can directly reprogram differentiated somatic cells to a different differentiated cell type without passing through a pluripotent state, but the restricted proliferative and lineage potential of the resulting cells limits the scope of their potential applications. Here we show that a(More)
Mouse and human stem cells with features similar to those of embryonic stem cells have been derived from testicular cells. Although pluripotent stem cells have been obtained from defined germline stem cells (GSCs) of mouse neonatal testis, only multipotent stem cells have been obtained so far from defined cells of mouse adult testis. In this study we(More)
Mouse epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) are cultured with FGF2 and Activin A, like human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), but the action of the associated pathways in EpiSCs has not been well characterized. Here, we show that activation of the Activin pathway promotes self-renewal of EpiSCs via direct activation of Nanog, whereas inhibition of this pathway induces(More)
Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is known to promote self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). In addition, it has been shown that transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) signaling is crucial in that the TGFbeta/Activin/Nodal branch of the pathway needs to be activated and the bone morphogenic protein (BMP)/GDF branch repressed to prevent(More)
The POU domain transcription factor OCT4 is a key regulator of pluripotency in the early mammalian embryo and is highly expressed in the inner cell mass of the blastocyst. Consistent with its essential role in maintaining pluripotency, Oct4 expression is rapidly downregulated during formation of the trophoblast lineage. To enhance our understanding of the(More)
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) comprise at least two populations of cells with divergent states of pluripotency. Here, we show that epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) also comprise two distinct cell populations that can be distinguished by the expression of a specific Oct4-GFP marker. These two subpopulations, Oct4-GFP positive and negative EpiSCs, are capable of(More)
Despite their distinct origins, human embryonic stem (hES) and embryonic carcinoma (hEC) cells share a number of similarities such as surface antigen expression, growth characteristics, the ability to either self-renew or differentiate, and control of the undifferentiated state by the same core transcription factors. To obtain further insights into the(More)
The evolutionary origins of the gene network underlying cellular pluripotency, a central theme in developmental biology, have yet to be elucidated. In mammals, Oct4 is a factor crucial in the reprogramming of differentiated cells into induced pluripotent stem cells. The Oct4 and Pou2 genes evolved from a POU class V gene ancestor, but it is unknown whether(More)
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can exit the self-renewal programme, through the action of signalling molecules, at any given time and differentiate along the three germ layer lineages. We have systematically investigated the specific roles of three signalling pathways, TGFβ/SMAD2, BMP/SMAD1, and FGF/ERK, in promoting the transition of hESCs into the(More)