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PURPOSE Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a glycoprotein that is found almost exclusively in normal and neoplastic prostate cells. For patients with metastatic disease, changes in PSA will often antedate changes in bone scan. Furthermore, many but not all investigators have observed an association between a decline in PSA levels of 50% or greater and(More)
The Cochran-Armitage trend test is commonly used as a genotype-based test for candidate gene association. Corresponding to each underlying genetic model there is a particular set of scores assigned to the genotypes that maximizes its power. When the variance of the test statistic is known, the formulas for approximate power and associated sample size are(More)
BACKGROUND The reported incidence of primary malignant brain tumors among children in the United States increased by 35% during the period from 1973 through 1994. The purpose of our study was twofold: 1) to determine whether the reported incidence rates for this period are better represented by a linear increase over the entire period ("linear model") or,(More)
MOTIVATION Recent technological advances such as cDNA microarray technology have made it possible to simultaneously interrogate thousands of genes in a biological specimen. A cDNA microarray experiment produces a gene expression 'profile'. Often interest lies in discovering novel subgroupings, or 'clusters', of specimens based on their profiles, for example(More)
PURPOSE This is a phase II, multicenter, open-label study of chemotherapy-naïve patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and age > or = 70 years who were treated with erlotinib and evaluated to determine the median, 1-year, and 2-year survival. The secondary end points include radiographic response rate, time to progression (TTP), toxicity, and(More)
PURPOSE A new generation of molecularly targeted agents is entering the definitive stage of clinical evaluation. Many of these drugs benefit only a subset of treated patients and may be overlooked by the traditional, broad-eligibility approach to randomized clinical trials. Thus, there is a need for development of novel statistical methodology for rapid(More)
In studies of association between genetic markers and a disease, the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) has become a standard procedure. It was introduced originally as a test for linkage in the presence of association and can be used as a test for association under appropriate assumptions. The power of the TDT test for association between a candidate(More)
BACKGROUND Many cancer patients in phase I clinical trials are treated at doses of chemotherapeutic agents that are below the biologically active level, thus reducing their chances for therapeutic benefit. Current phase I trials often take a long time to complete and provide little information about interpatient variability or cumulative toxicity. PURPOSE(More)
Human autoimmune diseases are thought to develop through a complex combination of genetic and environmental factors. Genome-wide linkage searches of autoimmune and inflammatory/immune disorders have identified a large number of non-major histocompatibility complex loci that collectively contribute to disease susceptibility. A comparison was made of the(More)
Clinical biomarker tests that aid in making treatment decisions will play an important role in achieving personalized medicine for cancer patients. Definitive evaluation of the clinical utility of these biomarkers requires conducting large randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Efficient RCT design is therefore crucial for timely introduction of these medical(More)