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Energy requirements of beavers (Castor canadensis) swimming voluntarily underwater were investigated in Neumünster Zoo (Germany) in a covered, still-water swim channel with oxygen and carbon dioxide respirometry. During the experiments, all activities of the beavers were monitored and recorded. While at rest within their thermoneutral zone on land (17(More)
The energy consumption of Adélie penguins while at rest in water (8.4 W·kg-1 at 4°C) or swimming below the surface was determined using a 21 m long canal fitted with respiration chambers at each end. Penguins chose to swim 86% of the time at speeds recorded in nature. Cost of transport was lowest (7.9 J·kg-1·m-1) at 1.7–2.3 m·s-1, corresponding to a power(More)
The energy requirements of Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) chicks were analysed with respect to body mass (W, 0.145–3.35 kg, n=36) and various forms of activity (lying, standing, minor activity, locomotion, walking on a treadmill). Direct respirometry was used to measure O2 consumption ( $$\dot V_{_{O_{{\text{ 2}}} } } ,l \cdot h^{ - 1} $$ ) and CO2(More)
The movements of gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua) in Antarctica were studied by equipping a total of 37 birds captured at Ardley Island, South Shetlands between December 1991 and May 1996 with position-determining devices. Information on area usage was derived from 20 of these devices and covered the incubation period (N = 3 birds), the chick-rearing(More)
In the course of physiological field studies, we opportunistically examined the effects of humans and aircraft on breeding Adélie Penguins Pygoscelis adeliae. Proximity to both aircraft and humans caused substantial increases in penguin heart rate even when no external stress was manifest. A solitary human at 20 m distance from commuting penguins on a(More)
We used a still-water swim channel in conjunction with open-flow oxygen and carbon dioxide respirometry to examine the energy requirements of river-otters (Lutra lutra L.) swimming voluntarily underwater in Neumünster Zoo (Germany). While at rest on land (5 °C), river-otters had a respiratory quotient of 0.77 and a resting metabolic rate of 4.1 W kg−1. This(More)
Dive duration in wild king penguins and the energetic cost of swimming in a 30m long swim channel were determined at Ile de la Possession, Crozet Archipelago, using external data loggers and respirometry, respectively. Calibrated electronic data loggers equipped with a pressure sensor were used to determine dive durations: 95% of dives were less than 6 min(More)
1. Resting metabolic rate was determined in Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) that had been fed warm and cold ingesta. 2. Post-ingestion metabolic rate was found to be related to food temperature rather than to specific dynamic action. 3. Calorimetric calculations indicate that up to 13% of Adelie penguin daily energy expenditure may be used heating(More)
Adélie penguins Pygoscelis adeliae appear to be little perturbed by man. We examined the incidence of nest desertion and duration of foraging trip in Adélie penguins when manipulated and fitted with devices of differing sizes. Birds with ca. 1 cm clipped from their tail feathers stayed at sea 50% longer than unmarked controls. The length of foraging trip(More)
During the austral summer 1998/1999, we compared foraging ecology and reproduction between chick-rearing Humboldt penguins Spheniscus humboldti at 2 colonies in Chile. At Pan de Azúcar in northern Chile prey availability was assumed to be lower than at Puñihuil, 1500 km further south, according to oceanographic data. Fifteen adult penguins were equipped(More)