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The present study explores the utility of mitochondrial COI gene sequences to reveal phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships for the entire European freshwater crayfish genus Austropotamobius. The two traditional taxa, Austropotamobius pallipes and Austropotamobius torrentium, were monophyletic, showing similar genetic diversity, with 28 and 25(More)
Karstic cave systems in Slovenia receive substantial amounts of organic input from adjacent forest and freshwater systems. These caves host microbial communities that consist of distinct small colonies differing in colour and shape. Visible to the naked eye, the colonies cover cave walls and are strewn with light-reflecting water droplets. In this study,(More)
Amphipods are brooding peracaridan crustaceans whose young undergo direct development, with no independent larval dispersal stage. Most species are epibenthic, benthic, or subterranean. There are some 1,870 amphipod species and subspecies recognized from fresh or inland waters worldwide at the end of 2005. This accounts for 20% of the total known amphipod(More)
Current theory predicts that a shift to a new habitat would increase the rate of diversification, while as lineages evolve into multiple species, intensified competition would decrease the rate of diversification. We used Holarctic amphipods of the genus Gammarus to test this hypothesis. We sequenced four genes (5,088 bp) for 289 samples representing 115(More)
Recent continental-scale phylogeographic studies have demonstrated that not all freshwater fauna colonized Europe from the classic Mediterranean peninsular refugia, and that northern or central parts of the continent were occupied before, and remained inhabited throughout the Pleistocene. The colonization history of the ubiquitous aquatic isopod crustacean(More)
Recent studies have revealed high local diversity and endemism in groundwaters, and showed that species with large ranges are extremely rare. One of such species is the cave shrimp Troglocaris anophthalmus from the Dinaric Karst on the western Balkan Peninsula, apparently uniform across a range of more than 500 kilometers. As such it contradicts the(More)
The remarkably discontinuous distribution of the cave shrimp genus Troglocaris in South France, West Balkans, and West Caucasus has long been considered a biogeographic enigma. To solve it, its phylogeny was reconstructed by analyzing sequences from two mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase I and 16S rRNA) and one nuclear gene (28S rRNA) using maximum(More)
The dark, mostly brackish, aquatic habitats along the coasts are inhabited by a number of phylogenetically and/or biogeographically interesting animal taxa, whose ecology is poorly known. We are especially ignorant about the nature of the deoxygenated strata that occur in most of these habitats. Are these strata anoxic or only dysoxic? And how are their(More)
The water louse Asellus aquaticus is a widespread, euryoecious species, mostly uniform throughout its range. However, six subspecies are known from the Dinaric karst in the northwestern Balkans. They include some specialized subterranean populations. The pattern of genetic variation among subterranean and surface populations in this hydrographically highly(More)