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Cell cycle checkpoints provide surveillance mechanisms to activate the DNA damage response, thus preserving genomic integrity. The heterotrimeric Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) clamp is a DNA damage response sensor and can be loaded onto DNA. 9-1-1 is involved in base excision repair (BER) by interacting with nearly every enzyme in BER. Here, we show that(More)
The Na-K-ATPase, or sodium pump, is comprised of two subunits, alpha and beta. Each subunit spans the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane. This review summarizes our efforts to determine how the two subunits interact to form the functional ion transporter. Our major approach has been to observe the potential for subunit assembly when one or both subunits are(More)
Hepatic gluconeogenesis is crucial to maintain normal blood glucose during periods of nutrient deprivation. Gluconeogenesis is controlled at multiple levels by a variety of signal transduction and transcriptional pathways. However, dysregulation of these pathways leads to hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. While the effects of various signaling pathways on(More)
MutY DNA glycosylase homologs (MYH or MUTYH) reduce G:C to T:A mutations by removing misincorporated adenines or 2-hydroxyadenines paired with guanine or 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxo-G). Mutations in the human MYH (hMYH) gene are associated with the colorectal cancer predisposition syndrome MYH-associated polyposis. To examine the function of MYH in(More)
TDG (thymine DNA glycosylase) is an essential multifunctional enzyme involved in DNA base excision repair, DNA demethylation and transcription regulation. TDG is the predominant enzyme that removes thymine from T/G mispair, which arises due to deamination of 5-methyl-cytosine at the CpG dinucleotide, thereby preventing C to T mutations. SIRT1 is a member of(More)
MutY homologue (MYH) is a DNA glycosylase which excises adenine paired with the oxidative lesion 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG, or G(o)) during base excision repair (BER). Base excision by MYH results in an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site in the DNA where the DNA sugar-phosphate backbone remains intact. A key feature of MYH activity is its physical(More)
SIRT6, a member of the NAD+-dependent histone/protein deacetylase family, regulates genomic stability, metabolism, and lifespan. MYH glycosylase and APE1 are two base excision repair (BER) enzymes involved in mutation avoidance from oxidative DNA damage. Rad9–Rad1–Hus1 (9–1–1) checkpoint clamp promotes cell cycle checkpoint signaling and DNA repair. BER is(More)
SIRT1, a member of the NAD(+)-dependent histone/protein deacetylase family, is involved in chromatin remodeling, DNA repair, and stress response and is a potential drug target. 5-fluorouracil (FU) and the SN1-type DNA methylating agent temozolomide (TMZ) are anticancer agents. In this study, we demonstrate that sirt1 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblast(More)
Oxidative DNA damage is repaired primarily by the base excision repair (BER) pathway in a process initiated by removal of base lesions or mismatched bases by DNA glycosylases. MutY homolog (MYH, MUTYH, or Myh1) is a DNA glycosylase which excises adenine paired with the oxidative lesion 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG, or G°), thus reducing G:C to T:A(More)
The RAD9A-HUS1-RAD1 (9-1-1) complex is a heterotrimeric clamp that promotes checkpoint signaling and repair at DNA damage sites. In this study, we elucidated HUS1 functional residues that drive clamp assembly, DNA interactions, and downstream effector functions. First, we mapped a HUS1-RAD9A interface residue that was critical for 9-1-1 assembly and DNA(More)