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STUDY DESIGN Literature review. OBJECTIVES Update the global maps for traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) and incorporate methods for extrapolating incidence data. SETTING An initiative of the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) Prevention Committee. METHODS A search of Medline/Embase was performed (1959-Jun/30/2011). Enhancement of data-quality(More)
STUDY DESIGN Literature review. OBJECTIVES To map traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) globally and provide a framework for an ongoing repository of data for prevention. SETTING An initiative of the ISCoS Prevention Committee. METHODS The results obtained from the search of Medline/Embase using search phrases: TSCI incidence, aetiology, prevalence and(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether the provision of single lens distance glasses to older wearers of multifocal glasses reduces falls. DESIGN Parallel randomised controlled trial stratified by recruitment site and source of referral, with 13 months' follow-up and outcome assessors blinded to group allocation. SETTING Community recruitment and treatment room(More)
BACKGROUND Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the formation of mature lamellar bone in soft tissue sites outside the skeleton. HO frequently complicates burns, arthroplasty, fractures, and spinal cord and brain injuries. It can impair joint function. OBJECTIVES To determine the efficacy of medications to treat acute HO on radiological, symptomatic,(More)
Central neuropathic pain following lesions within the CNS, such as spinal cord injury, is one of the most excruciating types of chronic pain and one of the most difficult to treat. The role of spinothalamic pathways in this type of pain is not clear. Previous studies suggested that spinothalamic tract lesions are necessary but not sufficient for development(More)
BACKGROUND Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients have respiratory complications because of abdominal muscle weakness and paralysis, which impair the ability to cough. OBJECTIVE This study aims to enhance cough in high-level SCI subjects (n = 11, SCI at or above T6) using surface electrical stimulation of the abdominal muscles via 2 pairs of posterolaterally(More)
BACKGROUND Recent research has shown that wearing multifocal glasses increases the risk of trips and falls in older people. The aim of this study is to determine whether the provision of single-lens distance glasses to older multifocal glasses wearers, with recommendations for wearing them for walking and outdoor activities, can prevent falls. We will also(More)
BACKGROUND Respiratory complications in people with high-level spinal cord injury (SCI) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly because of a reduced ability to cough as a result of abdominal muscle paralysis. OBJECTIVE . We investigated the effect of cough training combined with functional electrical stimulation (FES) over the abdominal(More)
BACKGROUND Methenamine salts are often used for the prevention of urinary tract infection (UTI). OBJECTIVES To assess the effectiveness of methenamine hippurate in preventing UTI. SEARCH STRATEGY Published and unpublished randomised controlled trials were identified from the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Current Contents,(More)
OBJECTIVE Evaluation of noninvasive stimulation modalities to augment cough and assist tracheostomy decannulation in high-level tetraplegia. STUDY DESIGN Single case study. METHODS A 65-year-old man with C4 ASIA C tetraplegia had delayed rehabilitation due to a tracheostomy and recurrent pneumonia primarily resulting from ineffective cough. Anterior(More)