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Directly measured food intake in 31 overweight female smokers to test whether (a) calorie and carbohydrate intakes increase after smoking cessation and (b) double-blind d-fenfluramine (30 mg), a serotonin-releasing drug, suppresses weight gain, overeating, and dysphoric mood associated with stopping smoking. Placebo-treated patients grew dysphoric after(More)
The authors conducted a meta-analysis of published studies to (a) evaluate the premise that a history of major depression is associated with failure to quit smoking and (b) identify factors that moderate the relationship between history of depression and cessation outcome. Fifteen studies met the selection requirements and were coded for various study(More)
The identification and exploration of genetic loci that influence smoking behaviors have been conducted primarily in populations of the European ancestry. Here we report results of the first genome-wide association study meta-analysis of smoking behavior in African Americans in the Study of Tobacco in Minority Populations Genetics Consortium (n = 32,389).(More)
This Commentary describes recent research progress and professional developments in the study of scientific teamwork, an area of inquiry termed the "science of team science" (SciTS, pronounced "sahyts"). It proposes a systems perspective that incorporates a mixed-methods approach to SciTS that is commensurate with the conceptual, methodological, and(More)
Patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) frequently report carbohydrate craving and note that carbohydrate ingestion energizes them. Bright artificial light has been shown to reverse the symptoms of SAD, including carbohydrate craving. In this study, 16 depressed SAD patients and 16 matched controls were fed two different isocaloric meals, one rich(More)
The history and meaning of evidence-based practice (EBP) in the health disciplines was described to the Council of University Directors of Clinical Psychology (CUDCP) training programs. Evidence-based practice designates a process of clinical decision-making that integrates research evidence, clinical expertise, and patient preferences and characteristics.(More)
Cigarette craving has been linked to elevated negative and positive moods, but a connection to deficient positive affect has not been studied. We tested whether a low hedonic capacity predicts a heightened urge to smoke after acute nicotine deprivation, and whether such an effect is mediated by decreased positive mood or increased negative mood. A total of(More)
The neurotransmitter precursors tryptophan and tyrosine are present in a variety of foods. In order to document possible effects of tryptophan and tyrosine on human behavior, single oral doses of these substances and matched placebos were administered to 20 men in a double-blind, crossover study. Various tests of mood state and performance were then(More)
The randomized controlled trial (RCT) provides critical support for evidence-based practice using psychological interventions. The control condition is the principal method of removing the influence of unwanted variables in RCTs. There is little agreement or consistency in the design and construction of control conditions. Because control conditions have(More)