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The goal of evidence-based medicine is ultimately to improve patient outcomes and quality of care. Systematic reviews of the available published evidence are required to identify interventions that lead to improvements in behavior, health, and well-being. Authoritative literature reviews depend on the quality of published research and research reports. The(More)
The history and meaning of evidence-based practice (EBP) in the health disciplines was described to the Council of University Directors of Clinical Psychology (CUDCP) training programs. Evidence-based practice designates a process of clinical decision-making that integrates research evidence, clinical expertise, and patient preferences and characteristics.(More)
Public health is moving toward the goal of implementing evidence-based interventions. To accomplish this, there is a need to select, adapt, and evaluate intervention studies. Such selection relies, in part, on making judgments about the feasibility of possible interventions and determining whether comprehensive and multilevel evaluations are justified.(More)
The authors conducted a meta-analysis of published studies to (a) evaluate the premise that a history of major depression is associated with failure to quit smoking and (b) identify factors that moderate the relationship between history of depression and cessation outcome. Fifteen studies met the selection requirements and were coded for various study(More)
Patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) frequently report carbohydrate craving and note that carbohydrate ingestion energizes them. Bright artificial light has been shown to reverse the symptoms of SAD, including carbohydrate craving. In this study, 16 depressed SAD patients and 16 matched controls were fed two different isocaloric meals, one rich(More)
Directly measured food intake in 31 overweight female smokers to test whether (a) calorie and carbohydrate intakes increase after smoking cessation and (b) double-blind d-fenfluramine (30 mg), a serotonin-releasing drug, suppresses weight gain, overeating, and dysphoric mood associated with stopping smoking. Placebo-treated patients grew dysphoric after(More)
The identification and exploration of genetic loci that influence smoking behaviors have been conducted primarily in populations of the European ancestry. Here we report results of the first genome-wide association study meta-analysis of smoking behavior in African Americans in the Study of Tobacco in Minority Populations Genetics Consortium (n = 32,389).(More)
BACKGROUND Obesity-attributable medical expenditures remain high, and interventions that are both effective and cost-effective have not been adequately developed. The Opt-IN study is a theory-guided trial using the Multiphase Optimization Strategy (MOST) to develop an optimized, scalable version of a technology-supported weight loss intervention. (More)