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IL-9 is a pleiotropic cytokine with key functions in tolerance and inflammation, and its expression is considered a hallmark of Th2-lineage cells. Here, we report that human and mouse Th17 cells are a significant source of IL-9. The expression of IL-9 by Th17 cells was strictly dependent on the presence of TGF-β and IL-1β, and inhibited by IL-4.(More)
Previous investigators using the extent of uptake of the weak base methylamine to measure internal pH have shown that the pH in the core region of dormant spores of Bacillus megaterium is 6.3 to 6.5. Elevation of the internal pH of spores by 1.6 U had no significant effect on their degree of dormancy or their heat or ultraviolet light resistance.(More)
Production of pathogenic Abs contributes to disease progression in many autoimmune disorders. The immunosuppressant agent mycophenolic acid (MPA) has shown clinical efficacy for patients with autoimmunity. The goal of these studies was to elucidate the mechanisms of action of MPA on B cells isolated from healthy individuals and autoimmune patients. In this(More)
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a key transcriptional regulator of Th17-cell differentiation. Although endogenous ligands have yet to be identified, evidence suggests that tryptophan metabolites can act as agonists for the AhR. Tryptophan metabolites are abundant in circulation, so we hypothesized that cell intrinsic factors might exist to regulate(More)
Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is the major physiologic inhibitor of the extrinsic coagulation pathway. We have previously shown that TFPI is also a potent inhibitor of endothelial proliferation in vitro and of primary and metastatic tumor growth in vivo. Surprisingly, the antitumor activity of TFPI was demonstrated to be independent of its(More)
The protease which initiates the rapid protein degradation during germination of Bacillus megaterium spores was synthesized during sporulation as a Mr = 46,000 polypeptide (P46) which was found in the developing forespore. P46 was processed during sporulation to a Mr = 41,000 species (P41) 2-3 h after P46 synthesis and at the time of or slightly before(More)
A human Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid B-cell line was generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of an asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) seropositive donor, which produces a human monoclonal antibody K14 (IgG1), reactive with an epitope on the transmembrane part (gp41) of the envelope glycoprotein of(More)
Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is the major physiologic inhibitor of the extrinsic coagulation pathway. We have previously shown that TFPI is also a potent inhibitor of endothelial proliferation in vitro and of primary and metastatic tumor growth in vivo. Surprisingly, the antitumor activity of TFPI was demonstrated to be independent of its(More)
Phage display antibody libraries are a rich resource for discovery of potential therapeutic antibodies. Single-chain variable fragment (scFv) libraries are the most common format due to the efficient display of scFv by phage particles and the ease by which soluble scFv antibodies can be expressed for high-throughput screening. Typically, a cascade of(More)