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Extracellular enzymes are the proximate agents of organic matter decomposition and measures of these activities can be used as indicators of microbial nutrient demand. We conducted a global-scale meta-analysis of the seven-most widely measured soil enzyme activities, using data from 40 ecosystems. The activities of beta-1,4-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase,(More)
Long-term nitrogen (N) addition experiments have found positive, negative, and neutral effects of added N on rates of decomposition. A leading explanation for this variation is differential effects of N on the activity of microbially produced extracellu-lar enzymes involved in decomposition. Specifically , it is hypothesized that adding N to N-limited(More)
Global change issues are complex and the consequences of decisions are often highly uncertain. The large spatial and temporal scales and stakes involved make it important to take account of present and potential consequences in decision-making. Standard approaches to decision-making under uncertainty require information about the likelihood of alternative(More)
We evaluate the return on investment (ROI) from public land conservation in the state of Minnesota, USA. We use a spatially-explicit modeling tool, the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST), to estimate how changes in land use and land cover (LULC), including public land acquisitions for conservation, influence the joint(More)
Despite growing recognition of the negative externalities associated with reactive nitrogen (N), the damage costs of N to air, water, and climate remain largely unquantified. We propose a comprehensive approach for estimating the social cost of nitrogen (SCN), defined as the present value of the monetary damages caused by an incremental increase in N. This(More)
The University of Minnesota is committed to the policy that all persons shall have equal access to its programs, facilities and employment without The 10 One Planet principles cover logo is courtesy of BioRegional, the UMore Park partner in the process to craft aspirational goals for sustainability outlined in this plan. BioRegional is an international(More)
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