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Anthrax is a lethal infectious disease caused by the spore-forming Bacillus anthracis. The two major virulence factors of B. anthracis are exotoxin and the poly-gamma-d-glutamic acid (PGA) capsule. The three components of the exotoxin, protective antigen (PA), lethal factor and edema factor act in a binary combination, which results in massive edema and(More)
Pathogens Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp) and Burkholderia mallei (Bm) contain a large number (> 12,000) of Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs). To study the extent to which these features have contributed to the diversification of genes, we have conducted comparative studies with nineteen genomes of these bacteria. We found 210 genes with characteristic types of(More)
In this paper, we present design, implementation and measurement of 3D mm-wave LTCC (low temperature co-fired ceramic) module with vertical transition through FR-4 PCB substrate. A new structure in order to transfer mm-wave signal from transceiver module through an opening in FR-4 PCB substrate to antenna with standard WR-22 waveguide port is proposed. The(More)
The poly-gamma-d-glutamic acid (PGA) capsule is one of the major virulence factors of Bacillus anthracis, which causes a highly lethal infection. The antiphagocytic PGA capsule disguises the bacilli from immune surveillance and allows unimpeded growth of bacilli in the host. Recently, efforts have been made to include PGA as a component of anthrax vaccine;(More)
Lethal toxin (LT), produced by the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis, was identified as a major etiologic agent causing anthrax due to its strong immunotoxicity. Gram-positive bacteria express lipoteichoic acid (LTA), which is considered as a counterpart to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of gram-negative bacteria, but differs from LPS in the structure(More)
The canonical Wnt signaling pathway, in which β-catenin nuclear localization is a crucial step, plays an important role in osteoblast differentiation. Pin1, a prolyl isomerase, is also known as a key enzyme in osteogenesis. However, the role of Pin1 in canonical Wnt signal-induced osteoblast differentiation is poorly understood. We found that Pin1(More)
A plastic ELISA-on-a-chip (EOC) employing the concept of cross-flow immuno-chromatographic analysis was applied to the measurement of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) as agent for bio-terrorism. Two monoclonal antibodies specific to the heavy chain of the toxin were raised and identified to form sandwich binding complexes as the pair with the analyte. For(More)
In this paper, the implementation of a 0.1 um GaAs pHEMT process MMIC LNA, a sub-harmonically pumped (SHP) mixer, and a single-chip receiver for 70/80 GHz point-to-point (PtP) communications are presented. In order to obtain high-gain performance and good flatness for a 15 GHz (71-86 GHz) wideband LNA, we use a 5-stage input/output ports transmission line(More)
To extend the shelf life of apples in South Korea, we evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation alone or gamma irradiation combined with fumigation on the control of postharvest decay caused by Botrytis cinerea and Monilinia fructigena. An irradiation dose of 1.0 kGy caused the maximal inhibition of B. cinerea and M. fructigena spore germination. The gamma(More)
In this paper, an 18 GHz 2 × 2 line-of-sight (LoS) multiple input, multiple output (MIMO) system for fixed wireless access is presented. The amplitude variation by the antenna beam pattern are calculated in a LoS environment for 2 × 2 MIMO system development. In addition, the theoretical SIR from these variations is extracted and verified(More)