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The article discusses the role of vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) in angiogenesis in embryonic development, particularly the effect of VEGF on capillary formation in response to chronic tissue ischemia and hypoxia. The sources and action of numerous angiogenic and angiostatic factors responsible for morphologic development of endothelial cells and(More)
Cerebral blood flow is dynamic and blood supply changes depending on which brain area is most active in a given moment. Endothelial cells provide information on blood flow autoregulation mechanism of myogenic, metabolic and neurogenic character. In ischaemia, hormonal and humoral regulations play an important role in blood flow, especially those substances(More)
Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is released excessively in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and vasodepression is its main effect on the blood vessels. The aim of the study was to investigate the changes in ANP secretion in the cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in SHRs. The SAH was induced by the injection of 100 microliters(More)
Aim of the study was to quantify cerebral vasospasm in rats after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by morphometric examination of basilar artery and to evaluate the influence of endothelin receptor blocker BQ-123 on basilar artery constriction. The rat cisterna magna (CM) was cannulated and after 7 days SAH was developed by administration of 100 microl(More)
Endothelin participates in regulating the vascular tone, and it is also involved in the pathogenesis of vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Endothelin-1 (ET-1) induced cerebral vasospasm is inhibited by ETA receptors specific antagonist-BQ-123; this protects the neurons from ischemic damage. The present study evaluates the dynamics of ET-1(More)
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of posthemorrhagic hypovolemia and hypotension upon the microvascular endothelial cells and on activity of antioxidant enzymes in blood, and to investigate the influence of intravenously injected endothelin-1 in rats. The experiment was conducted on 48 rats anesthetized with ethylurethane, subjected to(More)
Cerebral vasospasm is one of the most severe complications of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), leading to pathological changes in the vessel wall itself and in the nervous tissue, due to ischaemia of endothelial cells and neurones. Amongst the known substances inducing vasospasm, the most potent spasmogenic effect is exerted by endothelin-1 (ET1). The(More)
BACKGROUND Haemorrhagic hypotension is accompanied by an increase in endogenous opioid system activity, however, its significance is not fully recognised. Therefore, the role of endogenous opioid peptides in the central cardiovascular regulation in haemorrhagic shock was reviewed. CONCLUSIONS Complex central opioid mechanisms play an essential role in(More)