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BACKGROUND Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) is a common autoimmune disease mediated by autoimmune attack against pancreatic β-cells. It has been reported that dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) may contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, including T1D. The aim of the present study was to identify pathogenic miRNAs in peripheral blood(More)
To explore the relationship between serum liver enzymes and both the glucose tolerance status and insulin secretion in young obese patients. A total of 734 young obese patients (BMI ≥ 25 kg m(-2)) and 231 lean healthy volunteers matched in age (BMI < 23 kg m(-2)) were enrolled in this cross-sectional observational study. The 734 obese patients were(More)
AIMS/INTRODUCTION To investigate the typing for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I in Chinese patients with type 1 diabetes as a complement screening for HLA class II. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 212 type 1 diabetic patients and 200 healthy controls were enrolled. The genetic polymorphisms of HLA class I and II were examined with a high-resolution(More)
BACKGROUND Prostate multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) may be recommended for patients with a prior negative systematic biopsy (SB). However, a proportion of these patients will continue to have no prostate cancer (PCa) identified on magnetic resonance/ultrasound fusion biopsy (FB) despite abnormal mpMRI findings. METHODS In this(More)
In clinical research, comparisons of the results from experimental and control groups are often encountered. The two-sample t-test (also called independent samples t-test) and the paired t-test are probably the most widely used tests in statistics for the comparison of mean values between two samples. However, confusion exists with regard to the use of the(More)
In medical studies with multiple outcomes, researchers always need to make choices as to whether to use a composite outcome (after combining multiple outcomes) as their primary outcome. In this paper we review a new measurement of the treatment effect - win ratio, which can be easily used in studies with prioritized multiple outcomes. We also propose some(More)
The relative risk, risk difference, and odds ratio are the three most commonly used measures for comparing the risk of disease between different groups. Although widely popular in biomedical and psychosocial research, the relationship among the three measures has not been clarified in the literature. Many researchers incorrectly assume a monotonic(More)
Logistic regression is a popular statistical method in studying the effects of covariates on binary outcomes. It has been widely used in both clinical trials and observational studies. However, the results from the univariate regression and from the multiple logistic regression tend to be conflicting. A covariate may show very strong effect on the outcome(More)
In this paper we compare two moment-based methods which have been widely used to test the hypothesis of no treatment effect in pre- and post-treatment studies with data missing completely at random. Our theoretical derivation and simulation results show that the method based on all available data is not necessarily more efficient than the method that uses(More)
BACKGROUND Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors and sulfonylureas may have different effects on islet function. We designed a new two-step hyperglycemic clamp to further compare the effects of sitagliptin, saxagliptin, and glimepiride on β-cell function and the incretin effect. METHODS The present study was a four-way cross-over open label randomized(More)
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