We introduce a method of calculation of the analytical expansion of the field near the axis that is based on an application of Green's theorem. The approach is demonstrated on an example of a round… (More)

The increased speed of personal computers enables fast computation of rotationally symmetric electrostatic lenses with the first-order finite element method in meshes with a large number of mesh… (More)

In electron microscopy design, the systems are usually assumed to be perfectly aligned or that possible small imperfections can be eliminated by simple multipole correctors (centering deflectors,… (More)

The need for a combination of a number of observation and analytical methods in a single instrument minimizes the time consuming moving of the studied sample among several devices for different… (More)

For low emission currents from around 1 microA Ga liquid-metal ion sources (LMIS) produce fine optically bright ion beams that are strongly limited by the Coulomb particle-particle interactions. We… (More)

When calculating aberration coefficients of secondary and higher order, there is a danger of misinterpreting the result. An example is given for a homogenous magnetic field and the source of the… (More)

In this paper we present an approach for the calculation of aberration coefficients using accurate ray tracing. For a given optical system, intersections of a large number of trajectories with a… (More)

With FESEM the X-ray microanalysis of unstained ultrathin sections (600 Å) free of osmium is possible. Deposits in smooth muscle cells of arteriosclerotic aortae show high calcium-peaks already after… (More)