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Effects of pH, temperature, supplementation with whey protein concentrate (WPC), and non-EPS culture on the exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by Streptococcus thermophilus 1275 were studied. The organism was grown in 10% reconstituted skim milk (RSM) in a Biostat B fermenter for 24 h at various pH (4.5, 5.5 and 6.5) and temperatures (30, 37, 40, and 42(More)
Whey concentrated to 32% lactose was sonicated at 30°C in a non-contact approach at flow rates of up to 12L/min. Applied energy density varied from 3 to 16J/mL at a frequency of 20kHz. Sonication of whey initiated the rapid formation of a large number of lactose crystals in response to acoustic cavitation which increased the rate of crystallisation. The(More)
The sonication-induced changes in the structural and thermal properties of proteins in reconstituted whey protein concentrate (WPC) solutions were examined. Differential scanning calorimetry, UV-vis, fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic techniques were used to determine the thermal properties of proteins, measure thiol groups and monitor(More)
  • B Zisu, N P Shah
  • Journal of dairy science
  • 2005
Low-fat Mozzarella cheeses containing 6% fat were made by preacidification of milk, preacidification combined with exopolysaccharide- (EPS-) producing starter, used independently or as a coculture with non-EPS starter, and preacidification combined with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and EPS. The impact of these treatments on moisture retention, changes in(More)
An understanding of crystallisation within saline effluents is important for the design of both brine crystallisers and brine disposal ponds. In this work, crystallisation of a saline effluent concentrate from the Australian dairy industry has been examined at 22 wt% and 30 wt% total solids and at temperatures between 10 and 70 °C. The precipitation occurs(More)
The thickening or gelling of protein-based dairy streams and ingredients upon exposure to heat has been an ongoing problem in dairy processing for many decades. This phenomenon can restrict the range of dairy product options and reduce manufacturing efficiencies by limiting the type and extent of heat treatment that can be used. In this report, we outline a(More)
Samples of fresh skim milk, reconstituted micellar casein, and casein powder were sonicated at 20 kHz to investigate the effect of ultrasonication. For fresh skim milk, the average size of the remaining fat globules was reduced by approximately 10 nm after 60 min of sonication; however, the size of the casein micelles was determined to be unchanged. A small(More)
Aqueous solutions of reconstituted whey protein- concentrate (WPC) & isolate (WPI) powders were sonicated at 20 kHz in a batch process for 1-60 min. Sonication at 20 kHz increased the clarity of WPC solutions largely due to the reduction in the size of the suspended insoluble aggregates. The gel strength of these solutions when heated at 80°C for 20 min(More)
The solubility of calcium phosphate in concentrated dairy brine streams is important in understanding mineral scaling on equipment, such as membrane modules, evaporators, and heat exchangers, and in brine pond operation. In this study, the solubility of calcium phosphate has been assessed in the presence of up to 300 g/L sodium chloride as well as lactose,(More)
Food engineering within the dairy sector is an ever developing field of study purely based on the application of engineering principles and concepts to any aspect of dairy product manufacturing and operations. The last 25 years of science and technology devoted to milk and milk products have led to major advances. The purpose of this paper is to review the(More)