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Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a nosological entity proposed as an intermediate state between normal aging and dementia. MCI seems to represent an early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and there is a great interest in the relationship between MCI and the progression to AD. Some studies have demonstrated an accumulation of products of free radical(More)
Delayed secondary biochemical and cellular changes after traumatic brain injury continue for months to years, and are associated with chronic neuroinflammation and progressive neurodegeneration. Physical activity can reduce inflammation and facilitate recovery after brain injury. Here, we investigated the time-dependent effects, and underlying mechanisms of(More)
Although traditionally it was believed that adult neurons have entered a permanent post-mitotic phase, the latest experimental data indicate that cell cycle constituents critically affect normal functions of the adult central nervous system (CNS), as well as contribute to the pathophysiology of both acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Recent(More)
The Group I metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) can modulate addiction, pain, and neuronal cell death. Expression of some mGluRs, such as Group II and III mGluRs, has been reported in microglia and may affect their activation. However, the expression and role of mGluR5 in microglia is unclear. Using immunocytochemistry and Western blot, we(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces secondary injury mechanisms, including cell cycle activation (CCA), that leads to neuronal death and neurological dysfunction. We recently reported that delayed administration of roscovitine, a relatively selective cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, inhibits CCA and attenuates neurodegeneration and functional(More)
OBJECTIVE Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) has neuroprotective properties in vitro and has been reported to limit postischemic lesion volume in vivo. Previously, mGluR5 has been identified on microglia in vitro, but the effects of mGluR5 activation on inflammation in vivo or on recovery after spinal cord injury is unknown. METHODS(More)
Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes delayed secondary biochemical alterations that lead to tissue loss and associated neurological dysfunction. Up-regulation of cell cycle proteins occurs in both neurons and glia after SCI and may contribute to these changes. The present study examined the role of cell cycle activation on secondary injury after severe SCI in(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Despite extensive preclinical research supporting the effectiveness of neuroprotective therapies for brain trauma, there have been no successful randomized controlled clinical trials to date. TBI results in delayed secondary tissue injury due to neurochemical, metabolic and(More)
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) evokes a complex cascade of events with initial mechanical damage leading to secondary injury processes that contribute to further tissue loss and functional impairment. Growing evidence suggests that the cell cycle is activated following SCI. Up-regulation of cell cycle proteins after injury appears to contribute not only(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes chronic microglial activation that contributes to subsequent neurodegeneration, with clinical outcomes declining as a function of aging. Microglia/macrophages (MG/Mɸ) have multiple phenotypes, including a classically activated, proinflammatory (M1) state that might contribute to neurotoxicity, and an alternatively(More)