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An early transient burst of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of nuclear proteins was recently shown to be required for apoptosis to proceed in various cell lines (Simbulan-Rosenthal, C., Rosenthal, D., Iyer, S., Boulares, H., and Smulson, M. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 13703-13712) followed by cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), catalyzed by caspase-3.(More)
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a nosological entity proposed as an intermediate state between normal aging and dementia. MCI seems to represent an early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and there is a great interest in the relationship between MCI and the progression to AD. Some studies have demonstrated an accumulation of products of free radical(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes neuronal apoptosis, inflammation, and reactive astrogliosis, which contribute to secondary tissue loss, impaired regeneration, and associated functional disabilities. Here, we show that up-regulation of cell cycle components is associated with caspase-mediated neuronal apoptosis and glial proliferation after TBI in rats.(More)
Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes delayed secondary biochemical alterations that lead to tissue loss and associated neurological dysfunction. Up-regulation of cell cycle proteins occurs in both neurons and glia after SCI and may contribute to these changes. The present study examined the role of cell cycle activation on secondary injury after severe SCI in(More)
The Group I metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) can modulate addiction, pain, and neuronal cell death. Expression of some mGluRs, such as Group II and III mGluRs, has been reported in microglia and may affect their activation. However, the expression and role of mGluR5 in microglia is unclear. Using immunocytochemistry and Western blot, we(More)
Endocannabinoids, including 2-arachidonoylglycerol and anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine; AEA), have neuroprotective effects in the brain through actions at CB1 receptors. However, AEA also binds to vanilloid (VR1) receptors and induces cell death in several cell lines. Here we show that anandamide causes neuronal cell death in vitro and exacerbates(More)
Delayed secondary biochemical and cellular changes after traumatic brain injury continue for months to years, and are associated with chronic neuroinflammation and progressive neurodegeneration. Physical activity can reduce inflammation and facilitate recovery after brain injury. Here, we investigated the time-dependent effects, and underlying mechanisms of(More)
Recent clinical studies indicate that traumatic brain injury (TBI) produces chronic and progressive neurodegenerative changes leading to late neurologic dysfunction, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying such changes. Microglial-mediated neuroinflammationis an important secondary injury mechanism after TBI. In human studies, microglial(More)
Upregulation of cell cycle proteins occurs in both mitotic and post-mitotic neural cells after central nervous system (CNS) injury in adult animals. In mitotic cells, such as astroglia and microglia, they induce proliferation, whereas in post-mitotic cells such as neurons they initiate caspase-related apoptosis. We recently reported that early central(More)
Ca2+- and Mg2+-dependent endonucleases have been implicated in DNA fragmentation during apoptosis. We have demonstrated that particular nucleases of this type are inhibited by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and suggested that subsequent cleavage of PARP by caspase-3 might release these nucleases from poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation-induced inhibition. Hence, we purified and(More)