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Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a nosological entity proposed as an intermediate state between normal aging and dementia. MCI seems to represent an early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and there is a great interest in the relationship between MCI and the progression to AD. Some studies have demonstrated an accumulation of products of free radical(More)
Delayed secondary biochemical and cellular changes after traumatic brain injury continue for months to years, and are associated with chronic neuroinflammation and progressive neurodegeneration. Physical activity can reduce inflammation and facilitate recovery after brain injury. Here, we investigated the time-dependent effects, and underlying mechanisms of(More)
Although traditionally it was believed that adult neurons have entered a permanent post-mitotic phase, the latest experimental data indicate that cell cycle constituents critically affect normal functions of the adult central nervous system (CNS), as well as contribute to the pathophysiology of both acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Recent(More)
The Group I metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) can modulate addiction, pain, and neuronal cell death. Expression of some mGluRs, such as Group II and III mGluRs, has been reported in microglia and may affect their activation. However, the expression and role of mGluR5 in microglia is unclear. Using immunocytochemistry and Western blot, we(More)
Endocannabinoids, including 2-arachidonoylglycerol and anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine; AEA), have neuroprotective effects in the brain through actions at CB1 receptors. However, AEA also binds to vanilloid (VR1) receptors and induces cell death in several cell lines. Here we show that anandamide causes neuronal cell death in vitro and exacerbates(More)
Brain trauma is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, both in adult and pediatric populations. Much of the functional deficit derives from delayed cell death resulting from induction of neurotoxic factors that overwhelm endogenous neuroprotective responses. To identify the potential molecular mechanisms underlying such delayed responses, we compared(More)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) induces secondary injury mechanisms, including cell cycle activation (CCA), that leads to neuronal death and neurological dysfunction. We recently reported that delayed administration of roscovitine, a relatively selective cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, inhibits CCA and attenuates neurodegeneration and functional(More)
Cellular stress leads to DNA damage and activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in which translocation of mitochondrial cytochrome c to the cytosol plays a critical role. Previous studies have suggested alternative mechanisms responsible for this process. We examined initiation mechanisms of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway using human neuroblastoma(More)
OBJECTIVE Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) has neuroprotective properties in vitro and has been reported to limit postischemic lesion volume in vivo. Previously, mGluR5 has been identified on microglia in vitro, but the effects of mGluR5 activation on inflammation in vivo or on recovery after spinal cord injury is unknown. METHODS(More)
An early transient burst of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of nuclear proteins was recently shown to be required for apoptosis to proceed in various cell lines (Simbulan-Rosenthal, C., Rosenthal, D., Iyer, S., Boulares, H., and Smulson, M. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 13703-13712) followed by cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), catalyzed by caspase-3.(More)