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Any uracil bases in DNA, a result of either misincorporation or deamination of cytosine, are removed by uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG), one of the most efficient and specific of the base-excision DNA-repair enzymes. Crystal structures of human and viral UDGs complexed with free uracil have indicated that the enzyme binds an extrahelical uracil. Such binding(More)
Crystal structures of the DNA repair enzyme human uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG), combined with mutational analysis, reveal the structural basis for the specificity of the enzyme. Within the classic alpha/beta fold of UDG, sequence-conserved residues form a positively charged, active-site groove the width of duplex DNA, at the C-terminal edge of the central(More)
Uracil-DNA glycosylase inhibitor (Ugi) is a B. subtilis bacteriophage protein that protects the uracil-containing phage DNA by irreversibly inhibiting the key DNA repair enzyme uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG). The 1.9 A crystal structure of Ugi complexed to human UDG reveals that the Ugi structure, consisting of a twisted five-stranded antiparallel beta sheet(More)
The generation of high-affinity antibodies requires somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) at the immunoglobulin (Ig) locus. Both processes are triggered by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and require UNG-encoded uracil-DNA glycosylase. AID has been suggested to function as an mRNA editing deaminase or as a(More)
Cytotoxicity of 5-fluorouracil (FU) and 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FdUrd) due to DNA fragmentation during DNA repair has been proposed as an alternative to effects from thymidylate synthase (TS) inhibition or RNA incorporation. The goal of the present study was to investigate the relative contribution of the proposed mechanisms for cytotoxicity of(More)
Human UNG2 is a multifunctional glycosylase that removes uracil near replication forks and in non-replicating DNA, and is important for affinity maturation of antibodies in B cells. How these diverse functions are regulated remains obscure. Here, we report three new phosphoforms of the non-catalytic domain that confer distinct functional properties to UNG2.(More)
DNA glycosylases UNG and SMUG1 excise uracil from DNA and belong to the same protein superfamily. Vertebrates contain both SMUG1 and UNG, but their distinct roles in base excision repair (BER) of deaminated cytosine (U:G) are still not fully defined. Here we have examined the ability of human SMUG1 and UNG2 (nuclear UNG) to initiate and coordinate repair of(More)
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