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Genomes are damaged by spontaneous decay, chemicals, radiation and replication errors. DNA damage may cause mutations resulting in inheritable disease, cancer and ageing. Oxidative stress from ionising radiation and oxidative metabolism causes base damage, as well as strand breaks in DNA. Base damage is mostly indirect and caused by reactive oxygen species(More)
Any uracil bases in DNA, a result of either misincorporation or deamination of cytosine, are removed by uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG), one of the most efficient and specific of the base-excision DNA-repair enzymes. Crystal structures of human and viral UDGs complexed with free uracil have indicated that the enzyme binds an extrahelical uracil. Such binding(More)
Crystal structures of the DNA repair enzyme human uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG), combined with mutational analysis, reveal the structural basis for the specificity of the enzyme. Within the classic alpha/beta fold of UDG, sequence-conserved residues form a positively charged, active-site groove the width of duplex DNA, at the C-terminal edge of the central(More)
We have expressed a human recombinant uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG delta 84) closely resembling the mature form of the human enzyme (UNG, from the UNG gene) in Escherichia coli and purified the protein to apparent homogeneity. This form, which lacks the first seven nonconserved amino acids at the amino terminus, has properties similar to a 50% homogeneous(More)
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a 'master molecule' in immunoglobulin (Ig) class-switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) generation, AID deficiencies are associated with hyper-IgM phenotypes in humans and mice. We show here that recessive mutations of the gene encoding uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG) are associated with(More)
hUNG2 and hSMUG1 are the only known glycosylases that may remove uracil from both double- and single-stranded DNA in nuclear chromatin, but their relative contribution to base excision repair remains elusive. The present study demonstrates that both enzymes are strongly stimulated by physiological concentrations of Mg2+, at which the activity of hUNG2 is(More)
Uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG) protects the genome by removing mutagenic uracil residues resulting from deamination of cytosine. Uracil binds in a rigid pocket at the base of the DNA-binding groove of human UDG and the specificity for uracil over the structurally related DNA bases thymine and cytosine is conferred by shape complementarity, as well as by main(More)
Uracil-DNA glycosylase inhibitor (Ugi) is a B. subtilis bacteriophage protein that protects the uracil-containing phage DNA by irreversibly inhibiting the key DNA repair enzyme uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG). The 1.9 A crystal structure of Ugi complexed to human UDG reveals that the Ugi structure, consisting of a twisted five-stranded antiparallel beta sheet(More)
The generation of high-affinity antibodies requires somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) at the immunoglobulin (Ig) locus. Both processes are triggered by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and require UNG-encoded uracil-DNA glycosylase. AID has been suggested to function as an mRNA editing deaminase or as a(More)
DNA glycosylases UNG and SMUG1 excise uracil from DNA and belong to the same protein superfamily. Vertebrates contain both SMUG1 and UNG, but their distinct roles in base excision repair (BER) of deaminated cytosine (U:G) are still not fully defined. Here we have examined the ability of human SMUG1 and UNG2 (nuclear UNG) to initiate and coordinate repair of(More)