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Any uracil bases in DNA, a result of either misincorporation or deamination of cytosine, are removed by uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG), one of the most efficient and specific of the base-excision DNA-repair enzymes. Crystal structures of human and viral UDGs complexed with free uracil have indicated that the enzyme binds an extrahelical uracil. Such binding(More)
Crystal structures of the DNA repair enzyme human uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG), combined with mutational analysis, reveal the structural basis for the specificity of the enzyme. Within the classic alpha/beta fold of UDG, sequence-conserved residues form a positively charged, active-site groove the width of duplex DNA, at the C-terminal edge of the central(More)
Alkylation lesions in DNA and RNA result from endogenous compounds, environmental agents and alkylating drugs. Simple methylating agents, e.g. methylnitrosourea, tobacco-specific nitrosamines and drugs like temozolomide or streptozotocin, form adducts at N- and O-atoms in DNA bases. These lesions are mainly repaired by direct base repair, base excision(More)
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is a 'master molecule' in immunoglobulin (Ig) class-switch recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) generation, AID deficiencies are associated with hyper-IgM phenotypes in humans and mice. We show here that recessive mutations of the gene encoding uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG) are associated with(More)
The Escherichia coli AlkB protein and human homologs hABH2 and hABH3 are 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)/Fe(II)-dependent DNA/RNA demethylases that repair 1-methyladenine and 3-methylcytosine residues. Surprisingly, hABH1, which displays the strongest homology to AlkB, failed to show repair activity in two independent studies. Here, we show that hABH1 is a(More)
Genomes are damaged by spontaneous decay, chemicals, radiation and replication errors. DNA damage may cause mutations resulting in inheritable disease, cancer and ageing. Oxidative stress from ionising radiation and oxidative metabolism causes base damage, as well as strand breaks in DNA. Base damage is mostly indirect and caused by reactive oxygen species(More)
hUNG2 and hSMUG1 are the only known glycosylases that may remove uracil from both double- and single-stranded DNA in nuclear chromatin, but their relative contribution to base excision repair remains elusive. The present study demonstrates that both enzymes are strongly stimulated by physiological concentrations of Mg2+, at which the activity of hUNG2 is(More)
We have expressed a human recombinant uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG delta 84) closely resembling the mature form of the human enzyme (UNG, from the UNG gene) in Escherichia coli and purified the protein to apparent homogeneity. This form, which lacks the first seven nonconserved amino acids at the amino terminus, has properties similar to a 50% homogeneous(More)
Uracil-DNA glycosylase inhibitor (Ugi) is a B. subtilis bacteriophage protein that protects the uracil-containing phage DNA by irreversibly inhibiting the key DNA repair enzyme uracil-DNA glycosylase (UDG). The 1.9 A crystal structure of Ugi complexed to human UDG reveals that the Ugi structure, consisting of a twisted five-stranded antiparallel beta sheet(More)
The enzyme activation-induced deaminase (AID) triggers antibody diversification in B cells by catalyzing deamination and consequently mutation of immunoglobulin genes. To minimize off-target deamination, AID is restrained by several regulatory mechanisms including nuclear exclusion, thought to be mediated exclusively by active nuclear export. Here we(More)