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The contributing elements to boundaries of the round window niche are superiorly the tegmen fossula fenestra rotunda (roof support), inferiorly the fustis (depth) and area concamerata, anteriorly the sustentaculum (support) and postis anterior (anterior pillar), and posteriorly the postis posterior (posterior pillar) and the subiculum (underlying supporting(More)
  • B Proctor
  • 1984
The extratemporal course of the facial nerve must be completely understood if surgery is required for the removal of parotid and other tumors in the infratemporal space and skull base or if the nerve itself must be exposed when it has been severed. The key to mastering this surgery is to understand the anatomy of the parotid space and its relations to(More)
Congenital bony dehiscences in the facial canal result from incomplete closure during development and are observed in approximately 55% of temporal bones. Anomalies involving the facial canal frequently are encountered in malformations of the temporal bone. These anomalies include aberrations of the course of one or all of the segments of the canal;(More)
  • B Proctor
  • 1983
The embryology and anatomy of the petromastoid canal is reviewed. This structure may be responsible for the passage of some infections of the middle ear cleft into the posterior fossa. It also transmits important blood vessels to a portion of the bony labyrinth, to the facial canal, and to the mucosa of the mastoid air cell system.