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Groups of St Peter's fish Sarotherodon galilaeus were trained during 28 days of classical conditioning to respond to an acoustic signal by approaching a feeder. Their ability to retain the acoustically conditioned behaviour was tested after eight different intervals ranging from 12 to 188 days from termination of training. Retention tests comprised 7(More)
The increasing demand for on-line measurement of milk composition directs science and industry to search for practical solutions, and biosensors may be a possibility. The specific objective of this work was to develop an electrochemical biosensor to determine lactose concentration in fresh raw milk. The sensor is based on serial reactions of three(More)
Groups of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were trained for 33 days to discriminate between two acoustic signals differing in frequency and temporal pattern. One signal (positive stimulus) was reinforced by food, while the other (negative stimulus) was not rewarded. When exposed to 3 positive and 3 negative stimuli per day (training Paradigm 1) the fish(More)
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