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Viral infection triggers activation of transcription factors such as NF-kappaB and IRF3, which collaborate to induce type I interferons (IFNs) and elicit innate antiviral response. Here, we identified MITA as a critical mediator of virus-triggered type I IFN signaling by expression cloning. Overexpression of MITA activated IRF3, whereas knockdown of MITA(More)
T follicular helper cells (Tfh cells) play a pivotal role in germinal center reactions, which require B cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl6) transcription factor. To analyze their relationships with other effector T cell lineages and their stability in vivo, we developed and analyzed a new Bcl6 reporter mouse alone or together with other lineage reporter systems.(More)
Ubiquitination and deubiquitination have emerged as critical post-translational regulatory mechanisms for activation or attenuation of the virus-triggered type I interferon (IFN)(2) induction pathways. In this study, we identified two deubiquitinating enzymes, OTUB1 and OTUB2, as negative regulators of virus-triggered type I IFN induction. Overexpression of(More)
The efficacy of praziquantel for the treatment of Schistosoma japonicum in humans is reported from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 33 villages in Sichuan Province. Infection prevalence was found to be 5.7% (185 infected of 3,269 tested) in a region where 44-73% prevalence was found 9 years before. Collected miracidia were subjected to an in vitro test(More)
Despite great strides in schistosomiasis control over the past several decades in Sichuan Province, China the disease has re-emerged in areas where it was previously controlled. We reviewed historical records and found that schistosomiasis had re-emerged in eight counties by the end of 2004 - seven of 21 counties with transmission control and one of 25 with(More)
Viral infection activates transcription factors NF-kappaB and IRF3, which collaborate to induce type I interferons (IFNs) and elicit innate antiviral response. MITA (also known as STING) has recently been identified as an adaptor that links virus-sensing receptors to IRF3 activation. Here, we showed that the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF5 interacted with MITA in(More)
In immune responses, activated T cells migrate to B-cell follicles and develop into follicular T-helper (TFH) cells, a recently identified subset of CD4(+) T cells specialized in providing help to B lymphocytes in the induction of germinal centres. Although Bcl6 has been shown to be essential in TFH-cell function, it may not regulate the initial migration(More)
Inflammation is a homeostatic mechanism that limits the effects of infectious agents. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-1 are two cytokines that induce inflammation through activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB. Various studies have suggested that two homologous and structurally related adapter proteins TAB2 and TAB3 play redundant(More)
Viral infection initiates a series of signaling cascades that activate the transcription factors nuclear factor kappa B and interferon regulatory factor 3, which collaborate to induce transcription of genes for type I interferons (IFNs) and other cytokines. Here we report that the deubiquitinating enzyme ubiquitin-specific protease 17 (USP17) is required(More)