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Viral infection triggers activation of transcription factors such as NF-kappaB and IRF3, which collaborate to induce type I interferons (IFNs) and elicit innate antiviral response. Here, we identified MITA as a critical mediator of virus-triggered type I IFN signaling by expression cloning. Overexpression of MITA activated IRF3, whereas knockdown of MITA(More)
T follicular helper cells (Tfh cells) play a pivotal role in germinal center reactions, which require B cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl6) transcription factor. To analyze their relationships with other effector T cell lineages and their stability in vivo, we developed and analyzed a new Bcl6 reporter mouse alone or together with other lineage reporter systems.(More)
Despite great strides in schistosomiasis control over the past several decades in Sichuan Province, China the disease has re-emerged in areas where it was previously controlled. We reviewed historical records and found that schistosomiasis had re-emerged in eight counties by the end of 2004 - seven of 21 counties with transmission control and one of 25 with(More)
The efficacy of praziquantel for the treatment of Schistosoma japonicum in humans is reported from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 33 villages in Sichuan Province. Infection prevalence was found to be 5.7% (185 infected of 3,269 tested) in a region where 44-73% prevalence was found 9 years before. Collected miracidia were subjected to an in vitro test(More)
Twenty villages in the Anning River Valley of southwestern Sichuan China were surveyed for Schistosoma japonicum infections in humans and domestic animals. Also surveyed were human water contact patterns, snail populations, cercarial risk in irrigation systems, and agricultural land use. Few animals were infected, while village prevalence of infection in(More)
Viral infection triggers induction of type I interferons (IFNs), which are critical mediators of innate antiviral immune response. Mediator of IRF3 activation (MITA, also called STING) is an adapter essential for virus-triggered IFN induction pathways. How post-translational modifications regulate the activity of MITA is not fully elucidated. In expression(More)
Protein ubiquitination plays a critical role in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling and innate immunity. Although several E3 ubiquitin ligases have been identified downstream of TLRs, the regulation of protein deubiquitination in TLR-triggered innate immune responses is poorly understood. We identified ubiquitin-specific protease 25 (USP25) as a regulator of(More)
IFN-stimulated gene 56 (ISG56) is one of the first identified proteins induced by viruses and type I IFNs. In this study, we identified ISG56 as a virus-induced protein associated with MITA, an adapter protein involved in virus-triggered induction of type I IFNs. Overexpression of ISG56 inhibited Sendai virus-triggered activation of IRF3, NF-kappaB, and the(More)
Viral infection activates transcription factors NF-kappaB and IRF3, which collaborate to induce type I interferons (IFNs) and elicit innate antiviral response. MITA (also known as STING) has recently been identified as an adaptor that links virus-sensing receptors to IRF3 activation. Here, we showed that the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF5 interacted with MITA in(More)
In immune responses, activated T cells migrate to B-cell follicles and develop into follicular T-helper (TFH) cells, a recently identified subset of CD4(+) T cells specialized in providing help to B lymphocytes in the induction of germinal centres. Although Bcl6 has been shown to be essential in TFH-cell function, it may not regulate the initial migration(More)