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NMDA receptors are linked to intracellular cytoskeletal and signaling molecules via the PSD-95 protein complex. We report a novel family of postsynaptic density (PSD) proteins, termed Shank, that binds via its PDZ domain to the C terminus of PSD-95-associated protein GKAP. A ternary complex of Shank/GKAP/PSD-95 assembles in heterologous cells and can be(More)
Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) activate PI turnover and thereby trigger intracellular calcium release. Previously, we demonstrated that mGluRs form natural complexes with members of a family of Homer-related synaptic proteins. Here, we present evidence that Homer proteins form a physical tether linking mGluRs with the inositol(More)
Shank is a recently described family of postsynaptic proteins that function as part of the NMDA receptor-associated PSD-95 complex (Naisbitt et al., 1999 [this issue of Neuron]). Here, we report that Shank proteins also bind to Homer. Homer proteins form multivalent complexes that bind proline-rich motifs in group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors and(More)
Recommendation agents (RAs) are software agents that elicit the interests or preferences of individual consumers for products, either explicitly or implicitly, and make recommendations accordingly. RAs have the potential to support and improve the quality of the decisions consumers make when searching for and selecting products online. They can reduce the(More)
Homer is a neuronal immediate early gene (IEG) that is enriched at excitatory synapses and binds group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Here, we characterize a family of Homer-related proteins derived from three distinct genes. Like Homer IEG (now termed Homer 1a), all new members bind group 1 mGluRs. In contrast to Homer 1a, new members are(More)
We show that an end-to-end deep learning approach can be used to recognize either English or Mandarin Chinese speech–two vastly different languages. Because it replaces entire pipelines of hand-engineered components with neural networks, end-to-end learning allows us to handle a diverse variety of speech including noisy environments, accents and different(More)
The kinase mTOR has emerged as an important regulator of the differentiation of helper T cells. Here we demonstrate that differentiation into the TH1 and TH17 subsets of helper T cells was selectively regulated by signaling from mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) that was dependent on the small GTPase Rheb. Rheb-deficient T cells failed to generate TH1 and TH17(More)
Effector T cell differentiation requires the simultaneous integration of multiple, and sometimes opposing, cytokine signals. We demonstrated mTOR's role in dictating the outcome of T cell fate. mTOR-deficient T cells displayed normal activation and IL-2 production upon initial stimulation. However, such cells failed to differentiate into T helper 1 (Th1),(More)
Itch-specific neurons have been sought for decades. The existence of such neurons has been doubted recently as a result of the observation that itch-mediating neurons also respond to painful stimuli. We genetically labeled and manipulated MrgprA3+ neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and found that they exclusively innervated the epidermis of the skin(More)
Homer proteins have been proposed to play a role in synaptogenesis, synapse function, receptor trafficking, and axon pathfinding. Here we report the isolation and characterization of the Drosophila gene homer, the single Homer-related gene in fly. Using anti-Homer antibody we show that Homer is expressed in a broad range of tissues but is highly enriched in(More)